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Church Reform and the Crusades

Chapter 14, Section 1

AB
ClunyMonastern founded in France (910) that led the medieval monastic reform movement.,
PluralismProblem in the medieval Church caused by officials having more than one office.
SimonyProblem in the medieval Church caused by positions being sold in the Church.
Lay InvestitureProblem in the medieval Church caused by kings and bishops appointing bishops.
Pope Leo IXPope (1049-1054) who started the reform movement in the medieval Church.
CuriaThe clerks and advisers to the pope who served as the bureaucracy of the Church.
titheTax of 10% of the yearly income of every Christian family, paid to the Church.
friarsChurchmen who took vows but lived in the world by begging and preaching.
DominicansA Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic in the early 13th century in France, famed as scholars and teachers.
FranciscansMembers of Catholic religious orders that follow a body of regulations known as "The rule of St. Francis," famed as missionaries and preachers.,
RomanesqueEarly medieval arctitecture style characterized by round arches and barrel vault.s,
GothicHigh and Late medieval architecture style characterized bypointed arches, flying buttresses, and ribbed vaults.,
TympanumThe "story panel" above the door of a medieval church, often about the Last Judgement.
Alexius Comnenus IByzantine emperor from 1081 to 1118 whose request for help against the Muslims started the Crusades.
Urban IIPope (1088 - 1099) who started the Crusades by his preaching to the Council of Clermont in 1095.
CrusadeOne of several "holy wars" to gain control of the "Holy Land" (1095 - 1291).
First Crusade (1096 - 1099)Successfully captured Jerusalem and created the five "Crusader States."
Second Crusade (1147 -1149)Organized to recapture Edessa or to capture Damascus.
Third Crusade (1189 - 1191)Called to recapture Jerusalem.
SaladinSultan of Egyptn he recaptured Jerusalem in 1187.
Richard the Lion-HeartedKing of England who led the Third Crusade and made a treaty with Saladin.
Fourth Crusade (1202 - 1204)Crusaders who attacked and looted Constantinople instead of invading Egypt.
Children's CrusadePossibly fictitious attempts by the children of France and Germany to conquer Jerusalem.
Reconquista800 year-long (710 - 1492) conflict to drive the Muslims out of Spain.
InquisitionChurch court held to suppress heresy, especially active in Spain.

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