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HIMS 1130 Ch 22 Flash Cards

AB
Etiology of Mental IllnessFactors include complex issues, social factors, psychological factors, chemical factors
PsychiatryA specialty of clinical medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental illness
PsychiatristOne who specializes in the treatment of the mind; requires four years of medical school; received an M.D. degree
PsychologistNonmedical person who is trained in methods of psychotherapy--has completed a masters or doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.); cannot use electroconvulsive therapy or prescribe drugs
Psychology SpecialistsClinical psychology, experimental psychology, social psychology, forensic psychology, developmental psychology, child psychology
Social PsychologyFocuses on social interaction and the ways the actions of others influence the behavior of the individual
AffectExternal emotion or emotional response
AgoraphobiaFear of being alone in open or public places
AcrophobiaFear of heights
ZoophobiaFear of animals
AmnesiaLoss of memory
AmphetaminesCentral nervous system stimulants that may be used to treat depression
Anorexia nervosaAn eating disorder of excessive dieting and refusal to maintain a normal body weight
Antisocial personalityNo loyalty or concern for others, and without moral standards; acts only in response to desires and impulses; can't tolerate frustration and blames others when at fault
AnxietyVarying degrees of uneasiness, apprehension, or dread often accompanied by palpitations, tightness in the chest, breathlessness, and choking sensations
Anxiety disordersCharacterized by unpleasant tension, distress, and avoidance behavior; examples are phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder
AnxiolyticA drug that is used for relief of anxiety; a mild tranquilizer
ApathyLack of feeling; indifference, without emotion; lack of interest or emotional involvement
AutismPreoccupation with inner thoughts, daydreams, fantasies, delusions; self-preoccupation; severe lack of responsiveness to others; withdrawal and retarded language development; inability to interact
Behavior therapyConditioning (changing behavior patterns by training and repetition) is used to relieve anxiety and improve symptoms of illness
Bipolar disorderIntermixed periods of mania and depression
Bulimia nervosaAn eating disorder of binge eating followed by vomiting and depression, misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas, fasting, or excessive exercise
CannabisMarijuana
Catatonic stuporA state of diminished responsiveness to stimuli associated with schizophrenia
ClaustrophobiaFear of closed-in places
CompulsionUncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly
ConversionAnxiety becomes a bodily symptom such as blindness, deafness, or paralysis, none of which have an organic basis
Conversion disorderA physical symptom, with no organic basis, that appears as a result of anxiety and conflict
CyclothymiaMania alternating with depression; mild form of bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder
Defense mechanismUnconscious technique a person uses to resolve or conceal conflicts and anxiety
DeliriumConfusion in thinking; faulty perceptions and irrational behavior; characterized by rambling, irrelevant or incoherent speech, sensory misperceptions, and disorientation to time, place, or person with memory impairment; caused by drugs, seizures, or head trauma
Delirium tremensConfusion in thinking, fulty perceptions, or irrational behavior associated with alcohol
DelusionA fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence
DementiaLoss of intellectual abilities with impairment of memory, judgment, and reasoning as well as changes in personality; most common cause is Alzheimer disease
DepressionMajor mood disorder with chronic sadness, loss of energy, hopelessness, worry, and discouragement
DissociationUncomfortable feelings are separated from their real object; in order to avoid mental distress, the feelings are redirected toward a second object or behavior pattern
Dissociative disorderChronic or sudden disturbance of memory, identity, or consciousness
Dissociative identity disorderDisturbance of identity-- with two personalities (like Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde)
Dissociative amnesiaChronic or sudden disturbance of memory wherein the person is unable to remember important personal information
Dissociative fugueSudden disburbance of memory, identity, or consciousness wherein the person unexpectedly travels away from home or work
DysphoriaDepressed mood; sadness or hopelessness; worry or discouragement
DysthymiaDepressed mood that is not as severe as major depression
Electroconvulsive therapyElectric current is used to produce convulsions in the treatment of depression
EuphoriaExaggerated feeling of well-being; high
ExhibitionismCompulsive need to expose one's body, particularly the genitals, to an unsuspecting stranger
Family therapyTreatment of an entire family to resolve and understand conflicts
FetishismThe use of nonliving objects as substitutes for a human sexual love
Free associationA psychoanalytic technique in which the patient verbalizes, without censorship, the passing contents of his or her mind
FugueAmnesia with flight from customary surroundings
Gender-identity disorderStrong and persistent cross-gender identification with the opposite sex
Group therapyA group of patients with similar problems gain insight into their personality through discussion and interaction together
HallucinationFalse or unreal sensory perception as, for example, hearing voices when none is present
IllusionA false perception of an actual sensory stimulus
Histrionic personality disorderEmotional, attention-seeking, immature, and dependent; irrational outbursts and tantrums; flamboyant and theatrical; having general dissatisfaction with one's self and angry feelings about the world
HypnosisCondition or state of altered consciousness in which there is increased responsiveness to commands and suggestions
HypochondriasisCondition marked by exaggerated concern for one's physical health and exaggeration of minor complaints and normal sensations
HypomaniaA mood disorder that resembles mania, but is of lesser intensity
Freud's personality partsId, ego, and superego
IdThe major unconscious part of the personality; energy from instinctual drives and desires
EgoThe central coordinating branch of the personality that assesses and evaluates
SuperegoInternalized conscience and moral part of the personality
KleptomaniaMadness or compulsion to steal
LabileUnstable; undergoing rapid emotional change
LithiumSubstance used to treat the manic stage of manic-depressive illness
ManiaState of excessive excitability; hyperactivity and agitation; inflated self-esteem
MentalPertaining to the mind
Mood disordersProlonged emotion dominates a person's life; examples are bipolar and depressive disorders
MutismNonreactive state; stupor
Narcissistic personalityGrandiose sense of self-importance or uniqueness and preoccupation with fantasies of success and power; narcissism is a pervasive interest in one's self with a lack of empathy for others
Neuroleptic drugAny drug that favorably modifies psychotic behavior and symptoms (example--phenothiazine)
NeurosisA term formally used to describe mental disorders in which symptoms are distressing but reality testing is intact
ObsessionAn involuntary, persistent idea, emotion, or urge
Obsessive-compulsive disorderAn anxiety disorder in which recurrent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive acts (compulsions) dominate behavior
OpioidHeroine, morphine, codeine, and methadone
ParanoiaDelusions of persecution or grandeur or combinations of the two
Paranoid personalityContinually suspicious and mistrustful of other people; jealous and overly concerned with hidden motives of others; quick to take offense
ParaphiliaA psychosexual disorder in which sexual arousal is dependent on bizarre fantasies or acts involving use of a non-human object or suffering and humiliation of a human
PedophiliaSexual urges and fantasies involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (13 and younger)
Personality traitsEstablished patterns of thinking and ways of relating to and perceiving the environment and one's self
Personality disordersLifelong personality patterns marked by inflexibility and impairment of social functioning
PhenothiazinesTranquilizers used to treat psychoses
PhobiaIrrational or disabiling dread of an object or situation
Play therapyTreatement in which a child, through use of toys and playroom setting, expresses conflicts and feelings unable to be communicated by direct manner
Post-traumatic stress disorderAnxiety-related symptoms appear following exposure to personal experience of a traumatic event (such as intense fear, helplessness, insomnia, nightmares, and diminished responsiveness to the external world)
PsychoanalysisA treatment that allows the patient to explore inner emotions and conflicts to understand and change current behavior
PsychodramaGroup therapy in which a patient expresses feeling by acting out roles with other patients
PsychogenicPertaining to produced by the mind
PsychosisSignificant impairment of reality testing with symptoms such as delusion, hallucinations, and bizarre behavior; impairment of mental capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others
PsychosomaticPertaining to the effect of the mind on the body in causing illness
PsychotherapyTreatment of mental disorders
PyromaniaMadness for setting fires or seeing them
Reality testingAbility to perceive fact from fantasy; severely impaired in psychoses
RepressionDefense mechanism by which unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and impulses are pushed into the unconscious
Schizoid personalityEmotionally cold and aloof; indifferent to praise or criticism or to the feelings of others; few friendships and rarely appears to experience strong emotions, such as anger or joy; traits of shyness, social withdrawal, and introversion
SchizophreniaA psychosis involving withdrawal from the external world with a disturbed sense of self; includes delusions, hallucinations, and inappropriate affect; withdrawal from reality into an inner world of disorganized thinking and conflict; literally means "split mind"
Seasonal affective disorderA regular appearsnce of depression beginning in October/November; a change from depression to mania may occur from mid-February to mid-April
SedativesDrugs that lessen anxiety
Sexual disordersDisorders of paraphilias and sexual dysfunctions
Sexual masochismSexual gratification is gained by being humiliated, beaten, bound, or others made to suffer by another person
Sexual sadismSexual gratification is gained by inflicting physical or psychological pain or humiliation on others
Social phobiaFear of situations in which the individual is open to public scrutiny with possible embarrassment and humiliation (fear of speaking in public, using public restrooms, or eating in public)
Somatoform disordersMental disorders that are characterized by symptoms that suggest a physical disorder but can't be explained by an actual physical disorder
ToleranceA significant feature of dependence
Substance-related disordersRegular use of phychoactive substances (alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, opioids and sedatives) that affect the central nervous system
TransferencePsychoanalytic process in which the patient relates to the therapist as he or she had to prominent childhood figure
Transvestic fetishismCross-dressing; wearing clothing of the opposite sex
Tricyclic antidepressantsDrugs used to treat severe depression; three-ringed fused structure
VoyeurismSexual excitement is achieved by observing unsuspecting people who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity
XenophobiaFear of strangers


Omaha, NE

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