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7th Grade Science Vocabulary - Cells

AB
active transportprocess in which a cell uses energy to transport a substance into or out of the cell
amino acidbuilding block of protein
asexual reproductionreproduction requiring only one parent
ATPsubstance in which cells store energy
autotrophorganism that can produce its own food, primarily through photosynthesis
carbohydrateenergy-rich substance found in foods such as vegetables, cereal grains, and breads; sugars and starches
cellbasic unit of structure and function in living things
cell divisionprocess in which one cell divides into two cells, each of which is identical to the original cell
cell membranethin, flexible envelope that surrounds a cell and allows passage of materials into and out of the cell
cell theorytheory that all living things are made of cells, that all cells come from other cells, and that the cell is the basic unit of structure and function in living things
cell wall: outermost boundary of plant cells that is made of cellulose
chloroplastcell organelle containing chlorophyll that is involved in the process of photosynthesis
chromatinthreadlike coils of chromosomes
chromosomerod-shaped cell structure that directs the activities of a cell and passes on the traits of a cell to new cells
compoundtwo or more elements chemically combined
cytoplasmregion between the cell membrane and the nucleus
diffusionprocess by which substances move from a higher concentration of that substance to a lower concentration of that substance; primary method by which substances enter and leave the cell through the cell membrane
digestionprocess by which food is broken down into simpler substances
division of labordivision of work among the different parts of an organism's body that keeps an organism alive
DNAnucleic acid that stores the information needed to build proteins and carries genetic information about an organism
elementpure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes
endoplasmic reticulumtubular passageways in the cell through which substances such as proteins are transported
enzymechemical substance that helps control chemical reactions
excretionprocess of getting rid of waste materials
fatsubstance that supplies the body with energy and also helps support and cushion the vital organs in the body
fermentationenergy-releasing process that does not require oxygen; less efficient than respiration
heterotrophorganism that cannot make its own food
homeostasisability of an organism to keep conditions inside its body the same, even though conditions in its external environment change
ingestiontaking in food; eating
life spanmaximum length of time an organism can be expected to live
lysosomesmall; round structure , in a cell involved in the digestive activities of the cell
metabolismsum total of all chemical activities in an organism
mitochondriapower- houses of the cell in which cellular respiration occurs
mitosisprocess in which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei and the formation of two new daughter cells begins
nucleic acidlarge, organic compound that stores information that helps the body make the proteins it needs; DNA or RNA
nucleuscell structure that directs all the activities of the cell
organgroup of different tissues working together; the third level of organization in an organism
organ systemgroup of organs that work together to perform a specific function for the organism, the fourth level of organization in an organism
organelle"tiny organs" that make up a cell
organic compoundcompound found in living things that contains the element carbon
osmosisterm given for the diffusion of water through a membrane
photosynthesisprocess by which organisms use energy from sunlight to make their own food
proteinsubstance used to build and repair cells; made up of amino acids
respirationprocess in which simple food substances such as glucose are broken down and the energy they contain is released
responsesome action or movement of an organism brought on by a stimulus
ribosomeprotein-making site of the cell
RNAnucleic acid that "reads" the genetic information carried by DNA and guides the protein-making process
selectively permeablemembrane that allows certain materials to pass through, but restricts other materials from passing through
sexual reproductionreproduction usually involving two parents in which a sex cell from each parent unite to form offspring
spontaneous generationhypothesis that states that life can spring from nonliving matter
stimulussignal to which an organism reacts; change in the environment
stomataopenings in the lower surface of the epidermis in a green plant that allows gases to enter and leave the plant's cells
tissuegroup of similar cells that perform a special function in an organism; the second level of organization in an organism
vacuolelarge, round sac in the cytoplasm of a cell that stores water, food, enzymes, and other materials


Suwanee, GA

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