corelearningstandards
  Ms.
 

Standards for

English Language Arts
&
Literacy in History/Social Studies,
Science, and technical Subjects

K–5


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

College and Career readiness anchor Standards for reading

The K–5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by
the end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards
below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former
providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and
understandings that all students must demonstrate.

Key Ideas and details

1.
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific
textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
2.
Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting
details and ideas.
3.
Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Craft and Structure

4.
Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and
figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
5.
Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g.,
a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
6.
Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

7.
Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as
well as in words.*
8.
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well
as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
9.
Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the
approaches the authors take.
range of reading and Level of text Complexity

10.
Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
*Please see “Research to Build and Present Knowledge” in Writing and “Comprehension and Collaboration” in Speaking and Listening for
additional standards relevant to gathering, assessing, and applying information from print and digital sources.

Note on range and content
of student reading

To build a foundation for college
and career readiness, students
must read widely and deeply from
among a broad range of high-quality,
increasingly challenging literary and
informational texts. Through extensive
reading of stories, dramas, poems,
and myths from diverse cultures and
different time periods, students gain
literary and cultural knowledge as
well as familiarity with various text
structures and elements. By reading
texts in history/social studies, science,
and other disciplines, students build
a foundation of knowledge in these
fields that will also give them the
background to be better readers in all
content areas. Students can only gain
this foundation when the curriculum is
intentionally and coherently structured
to develop rich content knowledge
within and across grades. Students
also acquire the habits of reading
independently and closely, which are
essential to their future success.

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Literature K–5 RL RL

The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also
infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet
each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

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Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Key Ideas and details
1. With prompting and support, ask and answer 1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a 1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what,
questions about key details in a text. text. where, when, why, and how to demonstrate
understanding of key details in a text.

2. With prompting and support, retell familiar 2. Retell stories, including key details, and 2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales
stories, including key details. demonstrate understanding of their central from diverse cultures, and determine their central
message or lesson. message, lesson, or moral.

3. With prompting and support, identify characters, 3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in 3. Describe how characters in a story respond to
settings, and major events in a story. a story, using key details. major events and challenges.
Craft and Structure
4. Ask and answer questions about unknown words
in a text.
4. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems
that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular
beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply
rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
5. Recognize common types of texts (e.g.,
storybooks, poems).
5. Explain major differences between books that tell
stories and books that give information, drawing
on a wide reading of a range of text types.
5. Describe the overall structure of a story, including
describing how the beginning introduces the
story and the ending concludes the action.
6. With prompting and support, name the author
and illustrator of a story and define the role of
each in telling the story.
6. Identify who is telling the story at various points
in a text.
6. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of
characters, including by speaking in a different
voice for each character when reading dialogue
aloud.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. With prompting and support, describe the 7. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe 7. Use information gained from the illustrations and
relationship between illustrations and the story in its characters, setting, or events. words in a print or digital text to demonstrate
which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
an illustration depicts).

8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature)
9. With prompting and support, compare and 9. Compare and contrast the adventures and 9. Compare and contrast two or more versions
contrast the adventures and experiences of experiences of characters in stories. of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by
characters in familiar stories. different authors or from different cultures.

range of reading and Level of text Complexity
10. Actively engage in group reading activities with 10. With prompting and support, read prose and 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend
purpose and understanding. poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1. literature, including stories and poetry, in the
grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently,
with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the
range.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Literature K–5
RL

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Key Ideas and details
1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate
understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the
text as the basis for the answers.
1. Refer to details and examples in a text when
explaining what the text says explicitly and when
drawing inferences from the text.
1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining
what the text says explicitly and when drawing
inferences from the text.

2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and 2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem 2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem
myths from diverse cultures; determine the from details in the text; summarize the text. from details in the text, including how characters
central message, lesson, or moral and explain in a story or drama respond to challenges or
how it is conveyed through key details in the text. how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic;
summarize the text.

3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, 3. Describe in depth a character, setting, or event 3. Compare and contrast two or more characters,
motivations, or feelings) and explain how their in a story or drama, drawing on specific details settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing
actions contribute to the sequence of events. in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or on specific details in the text (e.g., how
actions). characters interact).

Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as
they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from
nonliteral language.
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases
as they are used in a text, including those
that allude to significant characters found in
mythology (e.g., Herculean).
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases
as they are used in a text, including figurative
language such as metaphors and similes.
5. Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems
when writing or speaking about a text, using
terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza;
describe how each successive part builds on
earlier sections.
5. Explain major differences between poems,
drama, and prose, and refer to the structural
elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter)
and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings,
descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when
writing or speaking about a text.
5. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or
stanzas fits together to provide the overall
structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

6.
Distinguish their own point of view from that of
the narrator or those of the characters.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

7.
Explain how specific aspects of a text’s
illustrations contribute to what is conveyed
by the words in a story (e.g., create mood,
emphasize aspects of a character or setting).
6.
Compare and contrast the point of view from which 6.
different stories are narrated, including the difference
between first-and third-person narrations.
7.
Make connections between the text of a story 7.
or drama and a visual or oral presentation of
the text, identifying where each version reflects
specific descriptions and directions in the text.
Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of
view influences how events are described.

Analyze how visual and multimedia elements
contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a
text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation
of fiction, folktale, myth, poem).

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8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature)
8. (Not applicable to literature)
9. Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and 9. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar 9. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre
plots of stories written by the same author about themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their
the same or similar characters (e.g., in books evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in approaches to similar themes and topics.
from a series). stories, myths, and traditional literature from
different cultures.
range of reading and Level of text Complexity
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend
literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry,
at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity
band independently and proficiently. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the band independently and proficiently.
range.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Informational Text K–5

RIRI
Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Key Ideas and details
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text

1. With prompting and support, ask and answer 1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a 1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what,
questions about key details in a text. text. where, when, why, and how to demonstrate
understanding of key details in a text.

2. With prompting and support, identify the main
topic and retell key details of a text.
2. Identify the main topic and retell key details of a
text.
2. Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text
as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within
the text.
3. With prompting and support, describe the
connection between two individuals, events,
ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
3. Describe the connection between two
individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information
in a text.
3. Describe the connection between a series of
historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or
steps in technical procedures in a text.

Craft and Structure
4. With prompting and support, ask and answer 4. Ask and answer questions to help determine or 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a
questions about unknown words in a text. clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area.
text.

5. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title
page of a book.
5. Know and use various text features (e.g.,
headings, tables of contents, glossaries,
electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or
information in a text.
5. Know and use various text features (e.g.,
captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries,
indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key
facts or information in a text efficiently.
6. Name the author and illustrator of a text and
define the role of each in presenting the ideas or
information in a text.
6. Distinguish between information provided by
pictures or other illustrations and information
provided by the words in a text.
6. Identify the main purpose of a text, including
what the author wants to answer, explain, or
describe.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. With prompting and support, describe the 7. Use the illustrations and details in a text to 7. Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram
relationship between illustrations and the text describe its key ideas. showing how a machine works) contribute to and
in which they appear (e.g., what person, place, clarify a text.
thing, or idea in the text an illustration depicts).
8. With prompting and support, identify the
reasons an author gives to support points in a
text.
8. Identify the reasons an author gives to support
points in a text.
8. Describe how reasons support specific points the
author makes in a text.
9. With prompting and support, identify basic
similarities in and differences between two
texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations,
descriptions, or procedures).
9. Identify basic similarities in and differences
between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in
illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).
9. Compare and contrast the most important points
presented by two texts on the same topic.

range of reading and Level of text Complexity
10. Actively engage in group reading activities with 10. With prompting and support, read informational 10. By the end of year, read and comprehend
purpose and understanding. texts appropriately complex for grade 1. informational texts, including history/social
studies, science, and technical texts, in the
grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently,
with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the
range.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Informational Text K–5 RI

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Key Ideas and details
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text

1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate
understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the
text as the basis for the answers.
1. Refer to details and examples in a text when
explaining what the text says explicitly and when
drawing inferences from the text.
1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining
what the text says explicitly and when drawing
inferences from the text.
2. Determine the main idea of a text; recount the
key details and explain how they support the
main idea.
2. Determine the main idea of a text and explain
how it is supported by key details; summarize the
text.
2. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and
explain how they are supported by key details;
summarize the text.
3. Describe the relationship between a series of
historical events, scientific ideas or concepts,
or steps in technical procedures in a text, using
language that pertains to time, sequence, and
cause/effect.
3. Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in
a historical, scientific, or technical text, including
what happened and why, based on specific
information in the text.
3. Explain the relationships or interactions between
two or more individuals, events, ideas, or
concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical
text based on specific information in the text.

Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of general academic
and domain-specific words and phrases in a text
relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area.
4. Determine the meaning of general academic
and domain-specific words or phrases in a text
relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.
4. Determine the meaning of general academic
and domain-specific words and phrases in a text
relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.
5. Use text features and search tools (e.g., key
words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information
relevant to a given topic efficiently.
5. Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology,
comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of
events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text
or part of a text.
5. Compare and contrast the overall structure
(e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect,
problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or
information in two or more texts.
6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of
the author of a text.
6. Compare and contrast a firsthand and
secondhand account of the same event or
topic; describe the differences in focus and the
information provided.
6. Analyze multiple accounts of the same event
or topic, noting important similarities and
differences in the point of view they represent.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Use information gained from illustrations (e.g.,
maps, photographs) and the words in a text to
demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g.,
where, when, why, and how key events occur).
7. Interpret information presented visually, orally, or
quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams,
time lines, animations, or interactive elements
on Web pages) and explain how the information
contributes to an understanding of the text in
which it appears.
7. Draw on information from multiple print or digital
sources, demonstrating the ability to locate
an answer to a question quickly or to solve a
problem efficiently.
8. Describe the logical connection between
particular sentences and paragraphs in a text
(e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third
in a sequence).
8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence
to support particular points in a text.
8. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence
to support particular points in a text, identifying
which reasons and evidence support which
point(s).

9. Compare and contrast the most important points 9. Integrate information from two texts on the same 9. Integrate information from several texts on the
and key details presented in two texts on the topic in order to write or speak about the subject same topic in order to write or speak about the
same topic. knowledgeably. subject knowledgeably.

range of reading and Level of text Complexity
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend 10. By the end of year, read and comprehend 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend
informational texts, including history/social informational texts, including history/social studies, informational texts, including history/social
studies, science, and technical texts, at the high science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text studies, science, and technical texts, at the high
end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band
independently and proficiently. needed at the high end of the range. independently and proficiently.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K–5)
RF

These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print, the alphabetic principle, and other basic
conventions of the English writing system. These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves; rather, they are necessary and important components
of an effective, comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and
disciplines. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. The point is to teach
students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention.

Note: In kindergarten, children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students:
Print Concepts
1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. 1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page. a. Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word,
b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by capitalization, ending punctuation).
specific sequences of letters.
c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
d. Recognize and name all upper-and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Phonological awareness
2.
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds 2.
(phonemes).
a.
Recognize and produce rhyming words.
b.
Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
c.
Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
d.
Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes)
in three-phoneme (consonent-vowel-consonent, or CVC) words.* (This does
not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
e.
Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable
words to make new words.
Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds
(phonemes).

a.
Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.
b.
Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes),
including consonant blends.
c.
Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in
spoken single-syllable words.
d.
Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of
individual sounds (phonemes).
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*Words, syllables, or phonemes written in /slashes/refer to their pronunciation or phonology.
Thus, /CVC/ is a word with three phonemes regardless of the number of letters in the spelling of the word.



Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K–5)
RF

Note: In kindergarten children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Phonics and Word recognition

3.
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word
analysis skills in decoding words.
a.
Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one
letter-sound correspondences by producing
the primary or many of the most frequent
sound for each consonant.
b.
Associate the long and short sounds with
common spellings (graphemes) for the five
major vowels.
c.
Read common high-frequency words by sight
(e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does).
d.
Distinguish between similarly spelled words by
identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
fluency

4.
Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and
understanding.
3.
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word
analysis skills in decoding words.
a.
Know the spelling-sound correspondences for
common consonant digraphs.
b.
Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
c.
Know final -e and common vowel team
conventions for representing long vowel
sounds.
d.
Use knowledge that every syllable must have
a vowel sound to determine the number of
syllables in a printed word.
e.
Decode two-syllable words following basic
patterns by breaking the words into syllables.
f.
Read words with inflectional endings.
g.
Recognize and read grade-appropriate
irregularly spelled words.
4.
Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to
support comprehension.
a.
Read on-level text with purpose and
understanding.
b.
Read on-level text orally with accuracy,
appropriate rate, and expression on successive
readings.
c.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word
recognition and understanding, rereading as
necessary.
3.
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word
analysis skills in decoding words.
a.
Distinguish long and short vowels when
reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
b.
Know spelling-sound correspondences for
additional common vowel teams.
c.
Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words
with long vowels.
d.
Decode words with common prefixes and
suffixes.
e.
Identify words with inconsistent but common
spelling-sound correspondences.
f.
Recognize and read grade-appropriate
irregularly spelled words.
4.
Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to
support comprehension.
a.
Read on-level text with purpose and
understanding.
b.
Read on-level text orally with accuracy,
appropriate rate, and expression on successive
readings.
c.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word
recognition and understanding, rereading as
necessary.
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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K–5)
RF

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Phonics and Word recognition

3.
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word
analysis skills in decoding words.
a.
Identify and know the meaning of the most
common prefixes and derivational suffixes.
b.
Decode words with common Latin suffixes.
c.
Decode multisyllable words.
d.
Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled
words.
fluency

4.
Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to
support comprehension.
a.
Read on-level text with purpose and
understanding.
b.
Read on-level prose and poetry orally with
accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on
successive readings
c.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word
recognition and understanding, rereading as
necessary.
3.
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word
analysis skills in decoding words.
a.
Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound
correspondences, syllabication patterns, and
morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read
accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in
context and out of context.
4.
Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to
support comprehension.
a.
Read on-level text with purpose and
understanding.
b.
Read on-level prose and poetry orally with
accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on
successive readings.
c.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word
recognition and understanding, rereading as
necessary.
3.
Know and apply grade-level phonics and word
analysis skills in decoding words.
a.
Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound
correspondences, syllabication patterns, and
morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read
accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in
context and out of context.
4.
Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to
support comprehension.
a.
Read on-level text with purpose and
understanding.
b.
Read on-level prose and poetry orally with
accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on
successive readings.
c.
Use context to confirm or self-correct word
recognition and understanding, rereading as
necessary.
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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

College and Career readiness anchor Standards for Writing

The K–5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of
each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The
CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter
providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

text types and Purposes*

1.
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant
and sufficient evidence.
2.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately
through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details,
and well-structured event sequences.
Production and distribution of Writing

4.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task,
purpose, and audience.
5.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
6.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
research to Build and Present Knowledge

7.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating
understanding of the subject under investigation.
8.
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each
source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
9.
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
range of Writing

10.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a
single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
*These broad types of writing include many subgenres. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types.

Note on range and content
of student writing

To build a foundation for college
and career readiness, students need
to learn to use writing as a way of
offering and supporting opinions,
demonstrating understanding of
the subjects they are studying,
and conveying real and imagined
experiences and events. They learn
to appreciate that a key purpose of
writing is to communicate clearly to
an external, sometimes unfamiliar
audience, and they begin to adapt
the form and content of their writing
to accomplish a particular task and
purpose. They develop the capacity
to build knowledge on a subject
through research projects and to
respond analytically to literary and
informational sources. To meet these
goals, students must devote significant
time and effort to writing, producing
numerous pieces over short and
extended time frames throughout the
year.

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Writing Standards K–5
W

The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications.
Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to the development
and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet
each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth in student writing
ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
text types and Purposes
1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and 1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the 1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the
writing to compose opinion pieces in which they topic or name the book they are writing about, topic or book they are writing about, state an
tell a reader the topic or the name of the book state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion,
they are writing about and state an opinion or and provide some sense of closure. use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to
preference about the topic or book (e.g., My connect opinion and reasons, and provide a
favorite book is . . .). concluding statement or section.
2. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and
writing to compose informative/explanatory
texts in which they name what they are writing
about and supply some information about the
topic.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they
name a topic, supply some facts about the topic,
and provide some sense of closure.
2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which
they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions
to develop points, and provide a concluding
statement or section.

Production and distribution of Writing
3.
Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and
writing to narrate a single event or several
loosely linked events, tell about the events in
the order in which they occurred, and provide a
reaction to what happened.
4. (Begins in grade 3)
3.
Write narratives in which they recount two or
more appropriately sequenced events, include
some details regarding what happened, use
temporal words to signal event order, and
provide some sense of closure.
4. (Begins in grade 3)
3.
Write narratives in which they recount a well-
elaborated event or short sequence of events,
include details to describe actions, thoughts,
and feelings, use temporal words to signal event
order, and provide a sense of closure.
4. (Begins in grade 3)
5. With guidance and support from adults, respond 5. With guidance and support from adults, focus on 5. With guidance and support from adults and
to questions and suggestions from peers and a topic, respond to questions and suggestions peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as
add details to strengthen writing as needed. from peers, and add details to strengthen writing needed by revising and editing.
as needed.

6. With guidance and support from adults, explore 6. With guidance and support from adults, use a 6. With guidance and support from adults, use a
a variety of digital tools to produce and publish variety of digital tools to produce and publish variety of digital tools to produce and publish
writing, including in collaboration with peers. writing, including in collaboration with peers. writing, including in collaboration with peers.

research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Participate in shared research and writing
projects (e.g., explore a number of books by
a favorite author and express opinions about
them).
7. Participate in shared research and writing
projects (e.g., explore a number of “how-to”
books on a given topic and use them to write a
sequence of instructions).
7. Participate in shared research and writing
projects (e.g., read a number of books on a
single topic to produce a report; record science
observations).
8. With guidance and support from adults,
recall information from experiences or gather
information from provided sources to answer a
question.
8. With guidance and support from adults,
recall information from experiences or gather
information from provided sources to answer a
question.
8. Recall information from experiences or gather
information from provided sources to answer a
question.

9. (Begins in grade 4) 9. (Begins in grade 4)
9. (Begins in grade 4)
range of Writing
10. (Begins in grade 3) 10. (Begins in grade 3)
10. (Begins in grade 3)
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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Writing Standards K–5
W

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
text types and Purposes

1.
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting 1.
a point of view with reasons.
a.
Introduce the topic or text they are writing
about, state an opinion, and create an
organizational structure that lists reasons.
b.
Provide reasons that support the opinion.
c.
Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because,
therefore, since, for example) to connect
opinion and reasons.
d.
Provide a concluding statement or section.
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a 1.
point of view with reasons and information.

a.
Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an
opinion, and create an organizational structure
in which related ideas are grouped to support
the writer’s purpose.
b.
Provide reasons that are supported by facts
and details.
c.
Link opinion and reasons using words and
phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in
addition).
d.
Provide a concluding statement or section
related to the opinion presented.
Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a
point of view with reasons and information.

a.
Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an
opinion, and create an organizational structure
in which ideas are logically grouped to support
the writer’s purpose.
b.
Provide logically ordered reasons that are
supported by facts and details.
c.
Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases,
and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).
d.
Provide a concluding statement or section
related to the opinion presented.
2.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a
topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
a.
Introduce a topic and group related
information together; include illustrations
when useful to aiding comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and
details.
c.
Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also,
another, and, more, but) to connect ideas
within categories of information.
d.
Provide a concluding statement or section.
2.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a
topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
a.
Introduce a topic clearly and group related
information in paragraphs and sections;
include formatting (e.g., headings),
illustrations, and multimedia when useful to
aiding comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic with facts, definitions,
concrete details, quotations, or other
information and examples related to the topic.
c.
Link ideas within categories of information
using words and phrases (e.g., another, for
example, also, because).
d.
Use precise language and domain-specific
vocabulary to inform about or explain the
topic.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section
related to the information or explanation
presented.
2.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a
topic and convey ideas and information clearly.
a.
Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general
observation and focus, and group related
information logically; include formatting (e.g.,
headings), illustrations, and multimedia when
useful to aiding comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic with facts, definitions,
concrete details, quotations, or other
information and examples related to the topic.
c.
Link ideas within and across categories of
information using words, phrases, and clauses
(e.g., in contrast, especially).
d.
Use precise language and domain-specific
vocabulary to inform about or explain the
topic.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section
related to the information or explanation
presented.
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined
experiences or events using effective technique,
descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
a.
Establish a situation and introduce a narrator
and/or characters; organize an event sequence
that unfolds naturally.
b.
Use dialogue and descriptions of actions,
thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences
and events or show the response of characters
to situations.
c.
Use temporal words and phrases to signal
event order.
d.
Provide a sense of closure.
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined
experiences or events using effective technique,
descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
a.
Orient the reader by establishing a
situationand introducing a narrator and/or
characters; organize an event sequence that
unfolds naturally.
b.
Use dialogue and description to develop
experiences and events or show the responses
of characters to situations.
c.
Use a variety of transitional words and phrases
to manage the sequence of events.
d.
Use concrete words and phrases and sensory
details to convey experiences and events
precisely.
e.
Provide a conclusion that follows from the
narrated experiences or events.
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined
experiences or events using effective technique,
descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
a.
Orient the reader by establishing a situation
and introducing a narrator and/or characters;
organize an event sequence that unfolds
naturally.
b.
Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue,
description, and pacing, to develop
experiences and events or show the responses
of characters to situations.
c.
Use a variety of transitional words, phrases,
and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
d.
Use concrete words and phrases and sensory
details to convey experiences and events
precisely.
e.
Provide a conclusion that follows from the
narrated experiences or events.
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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Writing Standards K–5 W

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Production and distribution of Writing
4.
5.
With guidance and support from adults,
produce writing in which the development
and organization are appropriate to task and
purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing
types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
With guidance and support from peers and
adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed
by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for
conventions should demonstrate command of
Language standards 1–3 up to and including
grade 3 on pages 28 and 29.)
4.
5.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the
development and organization are appropriate
to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific
expectations for writing types are defined in
standards 1–3 above.)
With guidance and support from peers and
adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed
by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for
conventions should demonstrate command of
Language standards 1–3 up to and including
grade 4 on pages 28 and 29.)
4.
5.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the
development and organization are appropriate
to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific
expectations for writing types are defined in
standards 1–3 above.)
With guidance and support from peers and adults,
develop and strengthen writing as needed by
planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a
new approach. (Editing for conventions should
demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3
up to and including grade 5 on pages 28 and 29.)
6. With guidance and support from adults, use
technology to produce and publish writing (using
keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and
collaborate with others.
6. With some guidance and support from adults,
use technology, including the Internet, to
produce and publish writing as well as to interact
and collaborate with others; demonstrate
sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type
a minimum of one page in a single sitting.
6. With some guidance and support from adults,
use technology, including the Internet, to
produce and publish writing as well as to interact
and collaborate with others; demonstrate
sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type
a minimum of two pages in a single sitting.

research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short research projects that build
knowledge about a topic.
7. Conduct short research projects that build
knowledge through investigation of different
aspects of a topic.
7. Conduct short research projects that use several
sources to build knowledge through investigation
of different aspects of a topic.
8. Recall information from experiences or gather
information from print and digital sources; take
brief notes on sources and sort evidence into
provided categories.
8. Recall relevant information from experiences or
gather relevant information from print and digital
sources; take notes and categorize information,
and provide a list of sources.
8. Recall relevant information from experiences or
gather relevant information from print and digital
sources; summarize or paraphrase information
in notes and finished work, and provide a list of
sources.
9. (Begins in grade 4) 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational
texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature
(e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting,
or event in a story or drama, drawing on
specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s
thoughts, words, or actions].”).
b. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to
informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an
author uses reasons and evidence to support
particular points in a text”).
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts
to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature
(e.g., “Compare and contrast two or more
characters, settings, or events in a story or a
drama, drawing on specific details in the text
[e.g., how characters interact]”).
b. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to
informational texts (e.g., “Explain how
an author uses reasons and evidence to
support particular points in a text, identifying
which reasons and evidence support which
point[s]”).

range of Writing
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time
for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter
time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for
a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and
audiences. audiences. audiences.

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

College and Career readiness anchor Standards
for Speaking and Listening

The K–5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of
each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The
CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter
providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

Comprehension and Collaboration

1.
Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners,
building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
2.
Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and
orally.
3.
Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

4.
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the
organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
5.
Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding
of presentations.
6.
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when
indicated or appropriate.
Note on range and content
of student speaking and
listening

To build a foundation for college
and career readiness, students must
have ample opportunities to take
part in a variety of rich, structured
conversations—as part of a whole
class, in small groups, and with a
partner. Being productive members
of these conversations requires
that students contribute accurate,
relevant information; respond to
and develop what others have said;
make comparisons and contrasts; and
analyze and synthesize a multitude of
ideas in various domains.

New technologies have broadened
and expanded the role that speaking
and listening play in acquiring
and sharing knowledge and have
tightened their link to other forms
of communication. Digital texts
confront students with the potential
for continually updated content and
dynamically changing combinations of
words, graphics, images, hyperlinks,
and embedded video and audio.

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Speaking and Listening Standards K–5
SL

The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications.

Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered
in preceding grades.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Comprehension and Collaboration
1.
Participate in collaborative conversations with
diverse partners about kindergarten topics and
texts with peers and adults in small and larger
groups.
a.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g.,
listening to others and taking turns speaking
about the topics and texts under discussion).
b.
Continue a conversation through multiple
exchanges.
1.
Participate in collaborative conversations with 1.
diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts
with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
a.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g.,
listening to others with care, speaking one
at a time about the topics and texts under
discussion).
b.
Build on others’ talk in conversations by
responding to the comments of others through
multiple exchanges.
c.
Ask questions to clear up any confusion about
the topics and texts under discussion.
Participate in collaborative conversations with
diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts
with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

a.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g.,
gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to
others with care, speaking one at a time about
the topics and texts under discussion).
b.
Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking
their comments to the remarks of others.
c.
Ask for clarification and further explanation
as needed about the topics and texts under
discussion.
2. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or 2. Ask and answer questions about key details in a 2. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a
information presented orally or through other text read aloud or information presented orally or text read aloud or information presented orally or
media by asking and answering questions through other media. through other media.
about key details and requesting clarification if
something is not understood.
3. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help,
get information, or clarify something that is not
understood.
3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker
says in order to gather additional information or
clarify something that is not understood.
3. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker
says in order to clarify comprehension, gather
additional information, or deepen understanding
of a topic or issue.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
4. Describe familiar people, places, things, and 4. Describe people, places, things, and events with 4. Tell a story or recount an experience with
events and, with prompting and support, provide relevant details, expressing ideas and feelings appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details,
additional detail. clearly. speaking audibly in coherent sentences.

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5. Add drawings or other visual displays to 5. Add drawings or other visual displays to 5. Create audio recordings of stories or poems;
descriptions as desired to provide additional descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, add drawings or other visual displays to stories
detail. thoughts, and feelings. or recounts of experiences when appropriate to
clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

6. Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and 6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate 6. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to
ideas clearly. to task and situation. (See grade 1 Language task and situation in order to provide requested
standards 1 and 3 on page 26 for specific detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language
expectations.) standards 1 and 3 on pages 26 and 27 for specific
expectations.)


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Speaking and Listening Standards K–5
SL

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Comprehension and Collaboration
1.
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative 1.
discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-
led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and
texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing
their own clearly.
a.
Come to discussions prepared, having read
or studied required material; explicitly draw
on that preparation and other information
known about the topic to explore ideas under
discussion.
b.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g.,
gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to
others with care, speaking one at a time about
the topics and texts under discussion).
c.
Ask questions to check understanding of
information presented, stay on topic, and link
their comments to the remarks of others.
d.
Explain their own ideas and understanding in
light of the discussion.
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative
discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-
led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and
texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing
their own clearly.

a.
Come to discussions prepared, having read
or studied required material; explicitly draw
on that preparation and other information
known about the topic to explore ideas under
discussion.
b.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and
carry out assigned roles.
c.
Pose and respond to specific questions to
clarify or follow up on information, and make
comments that contribute to the discussion
and link to the remarks of others.
d.
Review the key ideas expressed and explain
their own ideas and understanding in light of
the discussion.
1.
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative
discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-
led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and
texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing
their own clearly.
a.
Come to discussions prepared, having read
or studied required material; explicitly draw
on that preparation and other information
known about the topic to explore ideas under
discussion.
b.
Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and
carry out assigned roles.
c.
Pose and respond to specific questions by
making comments that contribute to the
discussion and elaborate on the remarks of
others.
d.
Review the key ideas expressed and draw
conclusions in light of information and
knowledge gained from the discussions.
2. Determine the main ideas and supporting details 2. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or 2. Summarize a written text read aloud or
of a text read aloud or information presented in information presented in diverse media and information presented in diverse media and
diverse media and formats, including visually, formats, including visually, quantitatively, and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and
quantitatively, and orally. orally. orally.

3.
Ask and answer questions about information from
a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and
detail.
4.
Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount
an experience with appropriate facts and relevant,
descriptive details, speaking clearly at an
understandable pace.
3. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker
provides to support particular points.
4.
Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount
an experience in an organized manner, using
appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details
to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at
an understandable pace.
3.
Summarize the points a speaker makes and
explain how each claim is supported by reasons
and evidence.
4.
Report on a topic or text or present an opinion,
sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate
facts and relevant, descriptive details to support
main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an
understandable pace.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
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5. Create engaging audio recordings of stories
or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an
understandable pace; add visual displays when
appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts
or details.
5. Add audio recordings and visual displays to
presentations when appropriate to enhance the
development of main ideas or themes.
5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics,
sound) and visual displays in presentations when
appropriate to enhance the development of main
ideas or themes.
6. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to
task and situation in order to provide requested
detail or clarification. (See grade 3 Language
standards 1 and 3 on pages 28 and 29 for specific
expectations.)
6. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal
English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations
where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g.,
small-group discussion); use formal English when
appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4
Language standards 1 on pages 28 and 29 for
specific expectations.)
6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks,
using formal English when appropriate to task and
situation. (See grade 5 Language standards 1 and
3 on pages 28 and 29 for specific expectations.)


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

College and Career readiness anchor Standards for Language

The K–5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of
each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The
CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter
providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

Conventions of Standard english

1.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
2.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when
writing.
Knowledge of Language

3.
Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective
choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
Vocabulary acquisition and Use

4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues,
analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
5.
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
6.
Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for
reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in
gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.
Note on range and content
of student language use

To build a foundation for college
and career readiness in language,
students must gain control over many
conventions of standard English
grammar, usage, and mechanics
as well as learn other ways to
use language to convey meaning
effectively. They must also be able to
determine or clarify the meaning of
grade-appropriate words encountered
through listening, reading, and media
use; come to appreciate that words
have nonliteral meanings, shadings of
meaning, and relationships to other
words; and expand their vocabulary
in the course of studying content. The
inclusion of Language standards in
their own strand should not be taken
as an indication that skills related
to conventions, effective language
use, and vocabulary are unimportant
to reading, writing, speaking, and
listening; indeed, they are inseparable
from such contexts.

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Language Standards K–5

The following standards for grades K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and
applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and
understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher
grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). See the table on page 30 for a complete list and
Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Conventions of Standard english

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of
standard English grammar and usage when standard English grammar and usage when standard English grammar and usage when writing
writing or speaking. writing or speaking. or speaking.
a. Print many upper-and lowercase letters. a. Print all upper-and lowercase letters. a. Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
b. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. b. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. b. Form and use frequently occurring irregular
c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/
or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
c. Use singular and plural nouns with matching
verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We
plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice,
fish).
d. Understand and use question words hop). c. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
(interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, d. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite d. Form and use the past tense of frequently
why, how). pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their; occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
e. Use the most frequently occurring anyone, everything). e. Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose
prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, e. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, between them depending on what is to be
of, by, with). and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; modified.
f. Produce and expand complete sentences in
shared language activities.
Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk
home).
f. Produce, expand, and rearrange complete
simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy
f. Use frequently occurring adjectives. watched the movie; The little boy watched the
g. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g.,
and, but, or, so, because).
movie; The action movie was watched by the
little boy).
h. Use determiners (e.g., articles,
demonstratives).
i. Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g.,
during, beyond, toward).
j. Produce and expand complete simple
and compound declarative, interrogative,
imperative, and exclamatory sentences in
response to prompts.

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2.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of
standard English capitalization, punctuation, and
spelling when writing.
a.
Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the
pronoun I.
b.
Recognize and name end punctuation.
c.
Write a letter or letters for most consonant
and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
d.
Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on
knowledge of sound-letter relationships.
2.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of 2.
standard English capitalization, punctuation, and
spelling when writing.
a.
Capitalize dates and names of people.
b.
Use end punctuation for sentences.
c.
Use commas in dates and to separate single
words in a series.
d.
Use conventional spelling for words with
common spelling patterns and for frequently
occurring irregular words.
e.
Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on
phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of
standard English capitalization, punctuation, and
spelling when writing.

a.
Capitalize holidays, product names, and
geographic names.
b.
Use commas in greetings and closings of
letters.
c.
Use an apostrophe to form contractions and
frequently occurring possessives.
d.
Generalize learned spelling patterns when
writing words (e.g., cage .
badge; boy .
boil).
e.
Consult reference materials, including
beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and
correct spellings.

Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Language Standards K–5

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:
Knowledge of Language
3.
(Begins in grade 2) 3. (Begins in grade 2) 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions
when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a.
Compare formal and informal uses of English.
Vocabulary acquisition and Use
4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words and phrases based on
kindergarten reading and content.

a.
Identify new meanings for familiar words and
apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a
bird and learning the verb to duck).
b.
Use the most frequently occurring inflections
and affixes (e.g., -ed,-s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful,
-less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown
word.
5.
With guidance and support from adults, explore 5.
word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a.
Sort common objects into categories (e.g.,
shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts
the categories represent.
b.
Demonstrate understanding of frequently
occurring verbs and adjectives by relating
them to their opposites (antonyms).
c.
Identify real-life connections between words
and their use (e.g., note places at school that
are colorful).
d.
Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs
describing the same general action (e.g.,
walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the
meanings.
4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown
and multiple-meaning words and phrases based
on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly
from an array of strategies.
a.
Use sentence-level context as a clue to the
meaning of a word or phrase.
b.
Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to
the meaning of a word.
c.
Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g.,
look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks,
looked, looking).
4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words and phrases based on
grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly
from an array of strategies.
a.
Use sentence-level context as a clue to the
meaning of a word or phrase.
b.
Determine the meaning of the new word
formed when a known prefix is added to a
known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
c.
Use a known root word as a clue to the
meaning of an unknown word with the same
root (e.g., addition, additional).
d.
Use knowledge of the meaning of individual
words to predict the meaning of compound
words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly;
bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
e.
Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both
print and digital, to determine or clarify the
meaning of words and phrases.
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With guidance and support from adults, 5.
demonstrate understanding of word relationships
and nuances in word meanings.

a.
Sort words into categories (e.g., colors,
clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the
categories represent.
b.
Define words by category and by one or more
key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims;
a tiger is a large cat with stripes).
c.
Identify real-life connections between words
and their use (e.g., note places at home that
are cozy).
d.
Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs
differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance,
stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in
intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or
choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
Demonstrate understanding of word relationships
and nuances in word meanings.

a.
Identify real-life connections between words
and their use (e.g., describe foods that are
spicy or juicy).
b.
Distinguish shades of meaning among closely
related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely
related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny,
scrawny).
6. Use words and phrases acquired through 6. Use words and phrases acquired through 6. Use words and phrases acquired through
conversations, reading and being read to, and conversations, reading and being read to, and conversations, reading and being read to, and
responding to texts. responding to texts, including using frequently responding to texts, including using adjectives
occurring conjunctions to signal simple and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are
relationships (e.g., because). happy that makes me happy).


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Language Standards K–5

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Conventions of Standard english
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of
standard English grammar and usage when standard English grammar and usage when standard English grammar and usage when writing
writing or speaking. writing or speaking. or speaking.
a. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, a. Explain the function of conjunctions,
adjectives, and adverbs in general and their which, that) and relative adverbs (where, prepositions, and interjections in general and
functions in particular sentences. when, why). their function in particular sentences.
b. Form and use regular and irregular plural b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I
nouns. walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
c. Use abstract nouns (e.g., childhood). tenses. c. Use verb tense to convey various times,
d. Form and use regular and irregular verbs.
e. Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk;
I will walk) verb tenses.
f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent
agreement.*
g. Form and use comparative and superlative
adjectives and adverbs, and choose between
them depending on what is to be modified.
h. Use coordinating and subordinating
conjunctions.
i. Produce simple, compound, and complex
c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to
convey various conditions.
d. Order adjectives within sentences according
to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag
rather than a red small bag).
e. Form and use prepositional phrases.
f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing
and correcting inappropriate fragments and
run-ons.*
g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g.,
to, too, two; there, their).*
sequences, states, and conditions.
d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in
verb tense.*
e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or,
neither/nor).
sentences.
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of
standard English capitalization, punctuation, and standard English capitalization, punctuation, and standard English capitalization, punctuation, and
spelling when writing. spelling when writing. spelling when writing.
a. Capitalize appropriate words in titles. a. Use correct capitalization. a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.*
b. Use commas in addresses. b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark b. Use a comma to separate an introductory
c. Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue. direct speech and quotations from a text. element from the rest of the sentence.
d. Form and use possessives.
e. Use conventional spelling for high-frequency
and other studied words and for adding
suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled,
cries, happiness).
f. Use spelling patterns and generalizations
(e.g., word families, position-based spellings,
syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful
word parts) in writing words.
c. Use a comma before a coordinating
conjunction in a compound sentence.
d. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly,
consulting references as needed.
c. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no
(e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question
from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t
it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that
you, Steve?).
d. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to
indicate titles of works.
e. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly,
consulting references as needed.
g. Consult reference materials, including
beginning dictionaries, as needed to check
and correct spellings.

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Language Standards K–5

Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:
Knowledge of Language
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions
when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Choose words and phrases for effect.* a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas a. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for
b. Recognize and observe differences between precisely.* meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
the conventions of spoken and written b. Choose punctuation for effect.* b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English
standard English. c. Differentiate between contexts that call (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas,
for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) or poems.
and situations where informal discourse is
appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

Vocabulary acquisition and Use
4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown
and multiple-meaning word and phrases based
on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly
from a range of strategies.
a.
Use sentence-level context as a clue to the
meaning of a word or phrase.
b.
Determine the meaning of the new word
formed when a known affix is added to a
known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable,
comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless,
heat/preheat).
c.
Use a known root word as a clue to the
meaning of an unknown word with the same
root (e.g., company, companion).
d.
Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both
print and digital, to determine or clarify the
precise meaning of key words and phrases.
4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words and phrases based on
grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly
from a range of strategies.
a.
Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or
restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning
of a word or phrase.
b.
Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and
Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning
of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph,
autograph).
c.
Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries,
glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital,
to find the pronunciation and determine or
clarify the precise meaning of key words and
phrases.
4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words and phrases based on
grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly
from a range of strategies.
a.
Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships
and comparisons in text) as a clue to the
meaning of a word or phrase.
b.
Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and
Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning
of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
c.
Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries,
glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital,
to find the pronunciation and determine or
clarify the precise meaning of key words and
phrases.
5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language,
and nuances in word meanings. language, word relationships, and nuances in word word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings meanings. a. Interpret figurative language, including similes
of words and phrases in context (e.g., take a. Explain the meaning of simple similes and and metaphors, in context.
steps). metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common
b. Identify real-life connections between words context. idioms, adages, and proverbs.
and their use (e.g., describe people who are
friendly or helpful).
b. Recognize and explain the meaning of
common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
c. Use the relationship between particular words
(e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to
c. Distinguish shades of meaning among related c. Demonstrate understanding of words by better understand each of the words.
words that describe states of mind or degrees relating them to their opposites (antonyms)
of certainty (e.g., knew, believed, suspected, and to words with similar but not identical
heard, wondered). meanings (synonyms).

6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate 6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate
conversational, general academic, and domain-general academic and domain-specific words general academic and domain-specific words
specific words and phrases, including those that and phrases, including those that signal precise and phrases, including those that signal contrast,
signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g.,
After dinner that night we went looking for them). whined, stammered) and that are basic to a however, although, nevertheless, similarly,
particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and moreover, in addition).
endangered when discussing animal preservation).

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Language Progressive Skills, by Grade

The following skills, marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1–3, are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are
applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking.

Standard
Grade(s)
3 4 5 6 7 8 9–10 11–12
L.3.1f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
L.3.3a. Choose words and phrases for effect.
L.4.1f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
L.4.1g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to/too/two; there/their).
L.4.3a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*
L.4.3b. Choose punctuation for effect.
L.5.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
L.5.2a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.†
L.6.1c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
L.6.1d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
L.6.1e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and
use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
L.6.2a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
L.6.3a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.‡
L.6.3b. Maintain consistency in style and tone.
L.7.1c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
L.7.3a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and
redundancy.
L.8.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
L.9–10.1a. Use parallel structure.
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*Subsumed by L.7.3a

†Subsumed by L.9–10.1a
‡Subsumed by L.11–12.3a

Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading K–5

Measuring Text Complexity: Three Factors


Qualitative evaluation of the text: Levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality
and clarity, and knowledge demands

Quantitative evaluation of the text: Readability measures and other scores of text complexity

Matching reader to text and task:
Reader variables (such as motivation, knowledge, and
experiences) and task variables (such as purpose and the
complexity generated by the task assigned and the questions
posed)

Note: More detailed information on text complexity and how it is measured is contained in
Appendix A.

Range of Text Types for K–5

Students in K–5 apply the Reading standards to the following range of text types, with texts selected from a broad range of cultures and periods.

Literature Informational Text
Stories dramas Poetry Literary nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and technical texts

Includes children’s adventure Includes staged dialogue and Includes nursery rhymes and Includes biographies and autobiographies; books about history, social
stories, folktales, legends, brief familiar scenes the subgenres of the narrative studies, science, and the arts; technical texts, including directions,
fables, fantasy, realistic fiction, poem, limerick, and free verse forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital
and myth poem sources on a range of topics

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Standard 10


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

* Read-aloud
** Read-along
Texts Illustrating the Complexity, Quality, and Range of Student Reading K–5

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Standard 10

Literature: Stories, drama, Poetry Informational texts: Literary nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and technical texts
K*
. Over in the Meadow by John Langstaff (traditional) (c1800)*
. A Boy, a Dog, and a Frog by Mercer Mayer (1967)
. Pancakes for Breakfast by Tomie DePaola (1978)
. A Story, A Story by Gail E. Haley (1970)*
. Kitten’s First Full Moon by Kevin Henkes (2004)*
. My Five Senses by Aliki (1962)**
. Truck by Donald Crews (1980)
. I Read Signs by Tana Hoban (1987)
. What Do You Do With a Tail Like This? by Steve Jenkins and Robin Page (2003)*
. Amazing Whales! by Sarah L. Thomson (2005)*
1*
. “Mix a Pancake” by Christina G. Rossetti (1893)**
. Mr. Popper’s Penguins by Richard Atwater (1938)*
. Little Bear by Else Holmelund Minarik, illustrated by Maurice Sendak (1957)**
. Frog and Toad Together by Arnold Lobel (1971)**
. Hi! Fly Guy by Tedd Arnold (2006)
. A Tree Is a Plant by Clyde Robert Bulla, illustrated by Stacey Schuett (1960)**
. Starfish by Edith Thacher Hurd (1962)
. Follow the Water from Brook to Ocean by Arthur Dorros (1991)**
. From Seed to Pumpkin by Wendy Pfeffer, illustrated by James Graham Hale (2004)*
. How People Learned to Fly by Fran Hodgkins and True Kelley (2007)*
2–3
. “Who Has Seen the Wind?” by Christina G. Rossetti (1893)
. Charlotte’s Web by E. B. White (1952)*
. Sarah, Plain and Tall by Patricia MacLachlan (1985)
. Tops and Bottoms by Janet Stevens (1995)
. Poppleton in Winter by Cynthia Rylant, illustrated by Mark Teague (2001)
. A Medieval Feast by Aliki (1983)
. From Seed to Plant by Gail Gibbons (1991)
. The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles (1995)*
. A Drop of Water: A Book of Science and Wonder by Walter Wick (1997)
. Moonshot: The Flight of Apollo 11 by Brian Floca (2009)
4–5
. Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (1865)
. “Casey at the Bat” by Ernest Lawrence Thayer (1888)
. The Black Stallion by Walter Farley (1941)
. “Zlateh the Goat” by Isaac Bashevis Singer (1984)
. Where the Mountain Meets the Moon by Grace Lin (2009)
. Discovering Mars: The Amazing Story of the Red Planet by Melvin Berger (1992)
. Hurricanes: Earth’s Mightiest Storms by Patricia Lauber (1996)
. A History of US by Joy Hakim (2005)
. Horses by Seymour Simon (2006)
. Quest for the Tree Kangaroo: An Expedition to the Cloud Forest of New Guinea by
Sy Montgomery (2006)
Note:
Given space limitations, the illustrative texts listed above are meant only to show individual titles that are representative of a wide range of topics and genres. (See Appendix
B for excerpts of these and other texts illustrative of K–5 text complexity, quality, and range.) At a curricular or instructional level, within and across grade levels, texts need to
be selected around topics or themes that generate knowledge and allow students to study those topics or themes in depth. On the next page is an example of progressions of
texts building knowledge across grade levels.

*Children at the kindergarten and grade 1 levels should be expected to read texts independently that have been specifically written to correlate to their reading level and their word knowledge.
Many of the titles listed above are meant to supplement carefully structured independent reading with books to read along with a teacher or that are read aloud to students to build
knowledge and cultivate a joy in reading.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Staying on Topic Within a Grade and Across Grades:
How to Build Knowledge Systematically in English Language Arts K–5


Building knowledge systematically in English language arts is like giving children various pieces of a puzzle in each grade that, over time, will form one big picture.
At a curricular or instructional level, texts—within and across grade levels—need to be selected around topics or themes that systematically develop the knowledge
base of students. Within a grade level, there should be an adequate number of titles on a single topic that would allow children to study that topic for a sustained
period. The knowledge children have learned about particular topics in early grade levels should then be expanded and developed in subsequent grade levels to
ensure an increasingly deeper understanding of these topics. Children in the upper elementary grades will generally be expected to read these texts independently
and reflect on them in writing. However, children in the early grades (particularly K–2) should participate in rich, structured conversations with an adult in response
to the written texts that are read aloud, orally comparing and contrasting as well as analyzing and synthesizing, in the manner called for by the Standards.

Preparation for reading complex informational texts should begin at the very earliest elementary school grades. What follows is one example that uses domain-
specific nonfiction titles across grade levels to illustrate how curriculum designers and classroom teachers can infuse the English language arts block with rich,
age-appropriate content knowledge and vocabulary in history/social studies, science, and the arts. Having students listen to informational read-alouds in the early
grades helps lay the necessary foundation for students’ reading and understanding of increasingly complex texts on their own in subsequent grades.

Exemplar Texts on a Topic
Across Grades K 1 2–3 4–5
the Human Body

Students can begin learning
about the human body
starting in kindergarten
and then review and extend
their learning during each
subsequent grade.

the five senses and associated
body parts


My Five Senses by Aliki (1989)

Hearing by Maria Rius (1985)

Sight by Maria Rius (1985)

Smell by Maria Rius (1985)

Taste by Maria Rius (1985)

Touch by Maria Rius (1985)
taking care of your body:
overview (hygiene, diet, exercise,
rest)


My Amazing Body: A First
Look at Health & Fitness by Pat
Thomas (2001)

Get Up and Go! by Nancy
Carlson (2008)

Go Wash Up by Doering
Tourville (2008)

Sleep by Paul Showers (1997)

Fuel the Body by Doering
Tourville (2008)
Introduction to the systems of the
human body and associated body
parts


Under Your Skin: Your Amazing
Body by Mick Manning (2007)

Me and My Amazing Body by
Joan Sweeney (1999)

The Human Body by Gallimard
Jeunesse (2007)

The Busy Body Book by Lizzy
Rockwell (2008)

First Encyclopedia of the
Human Body by Fiona Chandler
(2004)
taking care of your body: Germs,
diseases, and preventing illness


Germs Make Me Sick by Marilyn
Berger (1995)

Tiny Life on Your Body by
Christine Taylor-Butler (2005)

Germ Stories by Arthur
Kornberg (2007)

All About Scabs by
GenichiroYagu (1998)
digestive and excretory systems


What Happens to a Hamburger
by Paul Showers (1985)


The Digestive System by
Christine Taylor-Butler (2008)

The Digestive System by
Rebecca L. Johnson (2006)

The Digestive System by Kristin
Petrie (2007)
taking care of your body:
Healthy eating and nutrition


Good Enough to Eat by Lizzy
Rockwell (1999)

Showdown at the Food Pyramid
by Rex Barron (2004)

muscular, skeletal, and nervous
systems


The Mighty Muscular and
Skeletal Systems Crabtree
Publishing (2009)

Muscles by Seymour Simon
(1998)

Bones by Seymour Simon
(1998)

The Astounding Nervous System
Crabtree Publishing (2009)


The Nervous System by Joelle
Riley (2004)
Circulatory system


The Heart by Seymour Simon
(2006)

The Heart and Circulation by
Carol Ballard (2005)

The Circulatory System by
Kristin Petrie (2007)

The Amazing Circulatory System
by John Burstein (2009)

respiratory system


The Lungs by Seymour Simon
(2007)

The Respiratory System by
Susan Glass (2004)

The Respiratory System by
Kristin Petrie (2007)

The Remarkable Respiratory
System by John Burstein (2009)
endocrine system


The Endocrine System by
Rebecca Olien (2006)

The Exciting Endocrine System
by John Burstein (2009)

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StandardS for

english Language arts


6–12


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College and Career readiness anchor Standards for reading

The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the
end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number.
The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter
providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

Key Ideas and details

1.
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual
evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
2.
Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details
and ideas.
3.
Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Craft and Structure

4.
Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative
meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
5.
Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text
(e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
6.
Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

7.
Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as
well as in words.*
8.
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as
the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
9.
Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the
approaches the authors take.
range of reading and Level of text Complexity

10.
Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
*Please see “Research to Build Knowledge” in Writing and “Comprehension and Collaboration” in Speaking and Listening for
additional standards relevant to gathering, assessing, and applying information from print and digital sources.

Note on range and content
of student reading

To become college and career ready,
students must grapple with works
of exceptional craft and thought
whose range extends across genres,
cultures, and centuries. Such works
offer profound insights into the human
condition and serve as models for
students’ own thinking and writing.
Along with high-quality contemporary
works, these texts should be chosen
from among seminal U.S. documents,
the classics of American literature, and
the timeless dramas of Shakespeare.
Through wide and deep reading of
literature and literary nonfiction of
steadily increasing sophistication,
students gain a reservoir of literary
and cultural knowledge, references,
and images; the ability to evaluate
intricate arguments; and the capacity
to surmount the challenges posed by
complex texts.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Literature 6–12

RLRL
The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also
infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet
each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Key Ideas and details
1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what
the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn
from the text.
1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support
analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as
inferences drawn from the text.
1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly
supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly
as well as inferences drawn from the text.
2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and
how it is conveyed through particular details;
provide a summary of the text distinct from
personal opinions or judgments.
2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and
analyze its development over the course of the
text; provide an objective summary of the text.
2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and
analyze its development over the course of the text,
including its relationship to the characters, setting,
and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
3. Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot
unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the
characters respond or change as the plot moves
toward a resolution.
3. Analyze how particular elements of a story or
drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the
characters or plot).
3. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or
incidents in a story or drama propel the action,
reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases
they are used in a text, including figurative and as they are used in a text, including figurative as they are used in a text, including figurative
connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a and connotative meanings; analyze the impact and connotative meanings; analyze the impact
specific word choice on meaning and tone. of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., of specific word choices on meaning and tone,
alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a including analogies or allusions to other texts.
poem or section of a story or drama.

5. Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter,
scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of
a text and contributes to the development of the
theme, setting, or plot.
5. Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or
structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to
its meaning.
5. Compare and contrast the structure of two or more
texts and analyze how the differing structure of
each text contributes to its meaning and style.
6. Explain how an author develops the point of view
of the narrator or speaker in a text.
6. Analyze how an author develops and contrasts
the points of view of different characters or
narrators in a text.
6. Analyze how differences in the points of view of the
characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created
through the use of dramatic irony) create such
effects as suspense or humor.

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Literature 6–12
RL

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Compare and contrast the experience of reading 7. Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or 7. Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live
a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia production of a story or drama stays faithful to
an audio, video, or live version of the text, version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique or departs from the text or script, evaluating the
including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or choices made by the director or actors.
when reading the text to what they perceive camera focus and angles in a film).
when they listen or watch.

8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature)
8. (Not applicable to literature)
9.
Compare and contrast texts in different forms or
genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels
and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches
to similar themes and topics.
10.
By the end of the year, read and comprehend
literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in
the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently,
with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the
range.
9.
Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a
time, place, or character and a historical account
of the same period as a means of understanding
how authors of fiction use or alter history.
10.
By the end of the year, read and comprehend
literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in
the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently,
with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the
range.
9.
Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on
themes, patterns of events, or character types from
myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as
the Bible, including describing how the material is
rendered new.
10.
By the end of the year, read and comprehend
literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at
the high end of grades 6–8 text complexity band
independently and proficiently.
range of reading and Level of text Complexity
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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Literature 6–12
RL

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing
broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
Key Ideas and details
1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text 1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text
says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining
where the text leaves matters uncertain.

2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its 2. Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their
development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build
shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of
text. the text.

3.
Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting
motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters,
and advance the plot or develop the theme.
4.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text,
including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact
of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes
a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
3.
Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and
relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is
ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).
4.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text,
including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific
word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or
language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare
as well as other authors.)
Craft and Structure
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5. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order 5. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of
events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a
flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise. comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as
well as its aesthetic impact.
6. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of
literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world
literature.
6. Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is
directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or
understatement).

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic 7. Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live
mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version
Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one
Icarus). play by an American dramatist.)

8. (Not applicable to literature)
8. (Not applicable to literature)
9. Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific 9. Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-and early-twentieth-century
work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from
how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare). the same period treat similar themes or topics.

range of reading and Level of text Complexity
10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, 10. By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literature, including stories,
dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with dramas, and poems, in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with
scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature, including stories, By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literature, including stories,
dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band
independently and proficiently. independently and proficiently.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Informational Text 6–12 RI

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Key Ideas and details
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1. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of
what the text says explicitly as well as inferences
drawn from the text.
1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support
analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as
inferences drawn from the text.
1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports
an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as
inferences drawn from the text.
2. Determine a central idea of a text and how it
is conveyed through particular details; provide
a summary of the text distinct from personal
opinions or judgments.
2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text
and analyze their development over the course
of the text; provide an objective summary of the
text.
2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its
development over the course of the text, including its
relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective
summary of the text.
3. Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or
idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a
text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).
3. Analyze the interactions between individuals,
events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas
influence individuals or events, or how individuals
influence ideas or events).
3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and
distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events
(e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).

Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases
as they are used in a text, including figurative,
connotative, and technical meanings.
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases
as they are used in a text, including figurative,
connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the
impact of a specific word choice on meaning and
tone.
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they
are used in a text, including figurative, connotative,
and technical meanings; analyze the impact of
specific word choices on meaning and tone,
including analogies or allusions to other texts.
5. Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph,
chapter, or section fits into the overall structure
of a text and contributes to the development of
the ideas.
5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize
a text, including how the major sections
contribute to the whole and to the development
of the ideas.
5. Analyze in detail the structure of a specific
paragraph in a text, including the role of particular
sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose
in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the
text.
6. Determine an author’s point of view or
purpose in a text and analyze how the author
distinguishes his or her position from that of
others.
6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a
text and analyze how the author acknowledges and
responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Integrate information presented in different
media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively)
as well as in words to develop a coherent
understanding of a topic or issue.
7. Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video,
or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each
medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the
delivery of a speech affects the impact of the
words).
7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using
different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video,
multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific
claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are
supported by reasons and evidence from claims
that are not.
8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific
claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning
is sound and the evidence is relevant and
sufficient to support the claims.
8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific
claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is
sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient;
recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
9. Compare and contrast one author’s presentation
of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir
written by and a biography on the same person).
9. Analyze how two or more authors writing about
the same topic shape their presentations of key
information by emphasizing different evidence or
advancing different interpretations of facts.
9. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide
conflicting information on the same topic and
identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact
or interpretation.

range of reading and Level of text Complexity
10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary
literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6–8 text
complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as complexity band independently and proficiently.
needed at the high end of the range. needed at the high end of the range.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Informational Text 6–12
RI

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing
broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
Key Ideas and details
1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text 1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text
says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining
where the text leaves matters uncertain.

2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course 2. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development
of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another
details; provide an objective summary of the text. to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.

3. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, 3. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific
including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.
developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text,
including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author
cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text
language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper). (e.g., how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. 10).
5. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by
particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or
chapter).
5. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or
her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear,
convincing, and engaging.

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6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an
author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
7.
Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a
person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are
emphasized in each account.
6.
Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is
particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power,
persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.
7.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different
media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to
address a question or solve a problem.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing 8. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the
whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e.g., in U.S.
identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes,
and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist, presidential
addresses).

9. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., 9. Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S.
Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four documents of historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of
Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s
address related themes and concepts. Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.

range of reading and Level of text Complexity
10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 10. By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades
9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high
end of the range. end of the range.
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end
end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.


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College and Career readiness anchor Standards for Writing

The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the
end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number.
The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter
providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

text types and Purposes*

1.
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant
and sufficient evidence.
2.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately
through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details,
and well-structured event sequences.
Production and distribution of Writing

4.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task,
purpose, and audience.
5.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
6.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
research to Build and Present Knowledge

7.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating
understanding of the subject under investigation.
8.
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each
source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
9.
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
range of Writing

10.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a
single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
*These broad types of writing include many subgenres. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types.

Note on range and content
of student writing

For students, writing is a key means
of asserting and defending claims,
showing what they know about a
subject, and conveying what they
have experienced, imagined, thought,
and felt. To be college- and career-
ready writers, students must take
task, purpose, and audience into
careful consideration, choosing words,
information, structures, and formats
deliberately. They need to know how
to combine elements of different
kinds of writing—for example, to use
narrative strategies within argument
and explanation within narrative—
to produce complex and nuanced
writing. They need to be able to
use technology strategically when
creating, refining, and collaborating on
writing. They have to become adept
at gathering information, evaluating
sources, and citing material accurately,
reporting findings from their research
and analysis of sources in a clear
and cogent manner. They must have
the flexibility, concentration, and
fluency to produce high-quality first-
draft text under a tight deadline as
well as the capacity to revisit and
make improvements to a piece of
writing over multiple drafts when
circumstances encourage or require it.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Writing Standards 6–12
W

The following standards for grades 6–12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and
applications. Each year in their writing, students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use, from vocabulary and syntax to
the development and organization of ideas, and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Students advancing through the grades are
expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. The expected growth
in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
text types and Purposes

1.
Write arguments to support claims with clear
reasons and relevant evidence.
a.
Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons
and evidence clearly.
b.
Support claim(s) with clear reasons and
relevant evidence, using credible sources and
demonstrating an understanding of the topic
or text.
c.
Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the
relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
d.
Establish and maintain a formal style.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section
that follows from the argument presented.
1.
Write arguments to support claims with clear 1.
reasons and relevant evidence.
a.
Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or
opposing claims, and organize the reasons and
evidence logically.
b.
Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and
relevant evidence, using accurate, credible
sources and demonstrating an understanding
of the topic or text.
c.
Use words, phrases, and clauses to create
cohesion and clarify the relationships among
claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
d.
Establish and maintain a formal style.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section
that follows from and supports the argument
presented.
Write arguments to support claims with clear
reasons and relevant evidence.

a.
Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and
distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or
opposing claims, and organize the reasons and
evidence logically.
b.
Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and
relevant evidence, using accurate, credible
sources and demonstrating an understanding
of the topic or text.
c.
Use words, phrases, and clauses to create
cohesion and clarify the relationships among
claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d.
Establish and maintain a formal style.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section
that follows from and supports the argument
presented.
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2.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a 2.
topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information
through the selection, organization, and analysis
of relevant content.
a.
Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts,
and information, using strategies such as
definition, classification, comparison/contrast,
and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g.,
headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables),
and multimedia when useful to aiding
comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic with relevant facts,
definitions, concrete details, quotations, or
other information and examples.
c.
Use appropriate transitions to clarify the
relationships among ideas and concepts.
d.
Use precise language and domain-specific
vocabulary to inform about or explain the
topic.
e.
Establish and maintain a formal style.
f.
Provide a concluding statement or section that
follows from the information or explanation
presented.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a 2.
topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information
through the selection, organization, and analysis
of relevant content.

a.
Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what
is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and
information, using strategies such as definition,
classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/
effect; include formatting (e.g., headings),
graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia
when useful to aiding comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic with relevant facts,
definitions, concrete details, quotations, or
other information and examples.
c.
Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion
and clarify the relationships among ideas and
concepts.
d.
Use precise language and domain-specific
vocabulary to inform about or explain the
topic.
e.
Establish and maintain a formal style.
f.
Provide a concluding statement or section
that follows from and supports the information
or explanation presented.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a
topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information
through the selection, organization, and analysis of
relevant content.

a.
Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what
is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and
information into broader categories; include
formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g.,
charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to
aiding comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen
facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations,
or other information and examples.
c.
Use appropriate and varied transitions to create
cohesion and clarify the relationships among
ideas and concepts.
d.
Use precise language and domain-specific
vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e.
Establish and maintain a formal style.
f.
Provide a concluding statement or section that
follows from and supports the information or
explanation presented.

Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Writing Standards 6–12
W

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
text types and Purposes (continued)
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined
experiences or events using effective technique,
relevant descriptive details, and well-structured
event sequences.
a.
Engage and orient the reader by establishing
a context and introducing a narrator and/or
characters; organize an event sequence that
unfolds naturally and logically.
b.
Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue,
pacing, and description, to develop
experiences, events, and/or characters.
c.
Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and
clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts
from one time frame or setting to another.
d.
Use precise words and phrases, relevant
descriptive details, and sensory language to
convey experiences and events.
e.
Provide a conclusion that follows from the
narrated experiences or events.
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined
experiences or events using effective technique,
relevant descriptive details, and well-structured
event sequences.
a.
Engage and orient the reader by establishing
a context and point of view and introducing a
narrator and/or characters; organize an event
sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
b.
Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue,
pacing, and description, to develop
experiences, events, and/or characters.
c.
Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and
clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts
from one time frame or setting to another.
d.
Use precise words and phrases, relevant
descriptive details, and sensory language to
capture the action and convey experiences
and events.
e.
Provide a conclusion that follows from and
reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined
experiences or events using effective technique,
relevant descriptive details, and well-structured
event sequences.
a.
Engage and orient the reader by establishing
a context and point of view and introducing a
narrator and/or characters; organize an event
sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
b.
Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue,
pacing, description, and reflection, to develop
experiences, events, and/or characters.
c.
Use a variety of transition words, phrases,
and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts
from one time frame or setting to another, and
show the relationships among experiences and
events.
d.
Use precise words and phrases, relevant
descriptive details, and sensory language to
capture the action and convey experiences and
events.
e.
Provide a conclusion that follows from and
reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
Production and distribution of Writing
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which
the development, organization, and style are
appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
(Grade-specific expectations for writing types are
defined in standards 1–3 above.)
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which
the development, organization, and style are
appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
(Grade-specific expectations for writing types are
defined in standards 1–3 above.)
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which
the development, organization, and style are
appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
(Grade-specific expectations for writing types are
defined in standards 1–3 above.)
5. With some guidance and support from peers and
adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed
by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying
a new approach. (Editing for conventions should
demonstrate command of Language standards
1–3 up to and including grade 6 on page 52.)
5. With some guidance and support from peers and
adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed
by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying
a new approach, focusing on how well purpose
and audience have been addressed. (Editing for
conventions should demonstrate command of
Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade
7 on page 52.)
5. With some guidance and support from peers and
adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed
by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying
a new approach, focusing on how well purpose
and audience have been addressed. (Editing for
conventions should demonstrate command of
Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade
8 on page 52.)

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6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce
and publish writing as well as to interact and and publish writing and link to and cite sources and publish writing and present the relationships
collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient as well as to interact and collaborate with others, between information and ideas efficiently as well
command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum including linking to and citing sources. as to interact and collaborate with others.
of three pages in a single sitting.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Writing Standards 6–12 W

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short research projects to answer
a question, drawing on several sources and
refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.
7. Conduct short research projects to answer
a question, drawing on several sources and
generating additional related, focused questions
for further research and investigation.
7. Conduct short research projects to answer a
question (including a self-generated question),
drawing on several sources and generating
additional related, focused questions that allow for
multiple avenues of exploration.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple print
and digital sources; assess the credibility of each
source; and quote or paraphrase the data and
conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism
and providing basic bibliographic information for
sources.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple print
and digital sources, using search terms effectively;
assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;
and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions
of others while avoiding plagiarism and following
a standard format for citation.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple print
and digital sources, using search terms effectively;
assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;
and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions
of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a
standard format for citation.
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts
to support analysis, reflection, and research.
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts
to support analysis, reflection, and research.
9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts
to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature
(e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different
forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems;
historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms
of their approaches to similar themes and
topics”).
a. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature
(e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional
portrayal of a time, place, or character and
a historical account of the same period as a
means of understanding how authors of fiction
use or alter history”).
a. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature
(e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction
draws on themes, patterns of events, or
character types from myths, traditional stories,
or religious works such as the Bible, including
describing how the material is rendered new”).
b. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary
nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the
argument and specific claims in a text,
distinguishing claims that are supported by
reasons and evidence from claims that are
b. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary
nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the
argument and specific claims in a text,
assessing whether the reasoning is sound
and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to
b. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary
nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate
the argument and specific claims in a text,
assessing whether the reasoning is sound
and the evidence is relevant and sufficient;
not”). support the claims”). recognize when irrelevant evidence is
introduced”).

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range of Writing
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time
for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter
time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for
a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and
audiences. audiences. audiences.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Writing Standards 6–12
W

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing
broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
text types and Purposes

1.
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, 1.
using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
a.
Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or
opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear
relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b.
Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each
while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that
anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
c.
Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text,
create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons,
between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
d.
Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to
the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports
the argument presented.
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts,
using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

a.
Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the
claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and
create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims,
reasons, and evidence.
b.
Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the
most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and
limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge
level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
c.
Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major
sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between
claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s)
and counterclaims.
d.
Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to
the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports
the argument presented.
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2.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas,
concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective
selection, organization, and analysis of content.
a.
Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to
make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g.,
headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to
aiding comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended
definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples
appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
c.
Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text,
create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and
concepts.
d.
Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the
complexity of the topic.
e.
Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to
the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
f.
Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports
the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or
the significance of the topic).
2.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas,
concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection,
organization, and analysis of content.
a.
Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so
that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified
whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and
multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant
facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information
and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
c.
Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections
of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex
ideas and concepts.
d.
Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as
metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
e.
Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to
the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
f.
Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports
the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or
the significance of the topic).

Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Writing Standards 6–12
W

Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
text types and Purposes (continued)

3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using
effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
a.
Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or
observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a
narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or
events.
b.
Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection,
and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c.
Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one
another to create a coherent whole.
d.
Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to
convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
e.
Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced,
observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using
effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
a.
Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or
observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s)
of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth
progression of experiences or events.
b.
Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection,
and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c.
Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one
another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and
outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
d.
Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to
convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
e.
Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced,
observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
Production and distribution of Writing
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization,
and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific
expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, 5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing,
rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most
significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should
demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades
9–10 on page 54.) 11–12 on page 54.)

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6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update
individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback,
capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and including new arguments or information.
dynamically.

research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question 7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question
(including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden
the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject,
demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

8.
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital
sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each
source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text
selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a
standard format for citation.
8.
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources,
using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of
each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information
into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and
overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation.

Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Writing Standards 6–12
W

Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
research to Build and Present Knowledge (continued)
9.
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis,
reflection, and research.
a.
Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an
author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how
Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later
author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
b.
Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate
and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether
the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify
false statements and fallacious reasoning”).
9.
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis,
reflection, and research.
a.
Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate
knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-and early-twentieth-century
foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts
from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
b.
Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate
and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U.S. texts, including the application
of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in U.S. Supreme
Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and
arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential
addresses]”).
range of Writing
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and
revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of
tasks, purposes, and audiences. tasks, purposes, and audiences.

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

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College and Career readiness anchor Standards
for Speaking and Listening

The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the
end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number.
The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter
providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

Comprehension and Collaboration

1.
Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners,
building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
2.
Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and
orally.
3.
Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

4.
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the
organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
5.
Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding
of presentations.
6.
Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when
indicated or appropriate.
Note on range and content of
student speaking and listening

To become college and career
ready, students must have ample
opportunities to take part in a variety
of rich, structured conversations—as
part of a whole class, in small groups,
and with a partner—built around
important content in various domains.
They must be able to contribute
appropriately to these conversations,
to make comparisons and contrasts,
and to analyze and synthesize a
multitude of ideas in accordance with
the standards of evidence appropriate
to a particular discipline. Whatever
their intended major or profession, high
school graduates will depend heavily
on their ability to listen attentively to
others so that they are able to build
on others’ meritorious ideas while
expressing their own clearly and
persuasively.

New technologies have broadened and
expanded the role that speaking and
listening play in acquiring and sharing
knowledge and have tightened their
link to other forms of communication.
The Internet has accelerated the
speed at which connections between
speaking, listening, reading, and writing
can be made, requiring that students
be ready to use these modalities nearly
simultaneously. Technology itself
is changing quickly, creating a new
urgency for students to be adaptable in
response to change.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Speaking and Listening Standards 6–12
SL

The following standards for grades 6–12 offer a focus for instruction in each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills
and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and
understandings mastered in preceding grades.

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Comprehension and Collaboration
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1.
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative 1.
discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-
led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics,
texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and
expressing their own clearly.
a.
Come to discussions prepared, having read or
studied required material; explicitly draw on
that preparation by referring to evidence on
the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on
ideas under discussion.
b.
Follow rules for collegial discussions, set
specific goals and deadlines, and define
individual roles as needed.
c.
Pose and respond to specific questions with
elaboration and detail by making comments
that contribute to the topic, text, or issue
under discussion.
d.
Review the key ideas expressed and
demonstrate understanding of multiple
perspectives through reflection and
paraphrasing.
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative 1.
discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-
led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics,
texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and
expressing their own clearly.


a.
Come to discussions prepared, having read
or researched material under study; explicitly
draw on that preparation by referring to
evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe
and reflect on ideas under discussion.
b.
Follow rules for collegial discussions, track
progress toward specific goals and deadlines,
and define individual roles as needed.
c.
Pose questions that elicit elaboration and
respond to others’ questions and comments
with relevant observations and ideas that bring
the discussion back on topic as needed.
d.
Acknowledge new information expressed by
others and, when warranted, modify their own
views.
Engage effectively in a range of collaborative
discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-
led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics,
texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and
expressing their own clearly.

a.
Come to discussions prepared, having read
or researched material under study; explicitly
draw on that preparation by referring to
evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe
and reflect on ideas under discussion.
b.
Follow rules for collegial discussions and
decision-making, track progress toward
specific goals and deadlines, and define
individual roles as needed.
c.
Pose questions that connect the ideas of
several speakers and respond to others’
questions and comments with relevant
evidence, observations, and ideas.
d.
Acknowledge new information expressed
by others, and, when warranted, qualify or
justify their own views in light of the evidence
presented.
2. Interpret information presented in diverse media 2. Analyze the main ideas and supporting details 2. Analyze the purpose of information presented
and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually,
and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives
issue under study. ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study. (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its
presentation.

3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific 3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific 3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific
claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning
reasons and evidence from claims that are not. and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and
identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
4.
Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas
logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts,
and details to accentuate main ideas or themes;
use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume,
and clear pronunciation.
4.
Present claims and findings, emphasizing
salient points in a focused, coherent manner
with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and
examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate
volume, and clear pronunciation.
4.
Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient
points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant
evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen
details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate
volume, and clear pronunciation.
5. Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, 5. Include multimedia components and visual 5. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into
images, music, sound) and visual displays in displays in presentations to clarify claims and presentations to clarify information, strengthen
presentations to clarify information. findings and emphasize salient points. claims and evidence, and add interest.

6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, 6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks,
demonstrating command of formal English when demonstrating command of formal English when demonstrating command of formal English when
indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language
standards 1 and 3 on page 52 for specific standards 1 and 3 on page 52 for specific standards 1 and 3 on page 52 for specific
expectations.) expectations.) expectations.)


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Speaking and Listening Standards 6–12
SL

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing
broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
Comprehension and Collaboration
1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions
(one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10
topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own
clearly and persuasively.
1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneon-
one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics,
texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and
persuasively.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under
study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from
texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful,
well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under
study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts
and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-
reasoned exchange of ideas.
b. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making
(e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of
alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
b. Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-
making, set clear goals and deadlines, and establish individual roles as
needed.
c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the
current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate
others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and
conclusions.
c. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe
reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a
topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote
divergent and creative perspectives.
d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of
agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their
own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the
evidence and reasoning presented.
d. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims,
and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when
possible; and determine what additional information or research is required
to deepen the investigation or complete the task.
2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats
(e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of
each source.
2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) in order to make informed decisions
and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and
noting any discrepancies among the data.
3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric,
identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric,
assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of
emphasis, and tone used.

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4.
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely,
and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the
organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose,
audience, and task.
4.
Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear
and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning,
alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization,
development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a
range of formal and informal tasks.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and
interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings,
reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and
interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings,
reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command
of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 9–10 Language
standards 1 and 3 on pages 54 for specific expectations.)
6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command
of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grades 11–12 Language
standards 1 and 3 on page 54 for specific expectations.)


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College and Career readiness anchor Standards for Language

The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the
end of each grade. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number.
The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter
providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

Conventions of Standard english

1.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
2.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when
writing.
Knowledge of Language

3.
Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective
choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
Vocabulary acquisition and Use

4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues,
analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
5.
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
6.
Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for
reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in
gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
Note on range and content
of student language use

To be college and career ready in
language, students must have firm
control over the conventions of
standard English. At the same time,
they must come to appreciate that
language is as at least as much a
matter of craft as of rules and be
able to choose words, syntax, and
punctuation to express themselves
and achieve particular functions and
rhetorical effects. They must also
have extensive vocabularies, built
through reading and study, enabling
them to comprehend complex texts
and engage in purposeful writing
about and conversations around
content. They need to become
skilled in determining or clarifying
the meaning of words and phrases
they encounter, choosing flexibly
from an array of strategies to aid
them. They must learn to see an
individual word as part of a network
of other words—words, for example,
that have similar denotations but
different connotations. The inclusion
of Language standards in their
own strand should not be taken as
an indication that skills related to
conventions, effective language use,
and vocabulary are unimportant
to reading, writing, speaking, and
listening; indeed, they are inseparable
from such contexts.


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Language Standards 6–12

The following standards for grades 6–12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and
applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and
understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher
grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). See the table on page 56 for a complete listing and
Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication.

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Conventions of Standard english
1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of
standard English grammar and usage when
writing or speaking.
standard English grammar and usage when
writing or speaking.
standard English grammar and usage when writing
or speaking.
a. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case
(subjective, objective, possessive).
b. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself,
ourselves).
c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in
pronoun number and person.*
d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns
(i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous
antecedents).*
e. Recognize variations from standard English
in their own and others’ writing and
speaking, and identify and use strategies to
improve expression in conventional language.*
a. Explain the function of phrases and clauses
in general and their function in specific
sentences.
b. Choose among simple, compound, complex,
and compound-complex sentences to signal
differing relationships among ideas.
c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence,
recognizing and correcting misplaced and
dangling modifiers.*
a. Explain the function of verbals (gerunds,
participles, infinitives) in general and their
function in particular sentences.
b. Form and use verbs in the active and passive
voice.
c. Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative,
interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive
mood.
d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in
verb voice and mood.*
2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of
standard English capitalization, punctuation, and
spelling when writing.
standard English capitalization, punctuation, and
spelling when writing.
standard English capitalization, punctuation, and
spelling when writing.
a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses,
dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical
elements.*
b. Spell correctly.
a. Use a comma to separate coordinate
adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable
movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
b. Spell correctly.
a. Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to
indicate a pause or break.
b. Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
c. Spell correctly.

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Knowledge of Language
3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions
when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/ a. Choose language that expresses ideas a. Use verbs in the active and passive voice and
listener interest, and style.* precisely and concisely, recognizing and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to
b. Maintain consistency in style and tone.* eliminating wordiness and redundancy.* achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the
actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or
describing a state contrary to fact).


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Language Standards 6–12

Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students:
Vocabulary acquisition and Use

4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words and phrases based on
grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly
from a range of strategies.
a.
Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a
sentence or paragraph; a word’s position
or function in a sentence) as a clue to the
meaning of a word or phrase.
b.
Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or
Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning
of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
c.
Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries,
glossaries, thesauruses), both print and
digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or
determine or clarify its precise meaning or its
part of speech.
d.
Verify the preliminary determination of
the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by
checking the inferred meaning in context or in
a dictionary).
4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words and phrases based on
grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly
from a range of strategies.
a.
Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a
sentence or paragraph; a word’s position
or function in a sentence) as a clue to the
meaning of a word or phrase.
b.
Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or
Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning
of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel).
c.
Consult general and specialized reference
materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
thesauruses), both print and digital, to find
the pronunciation of a word or determine
or clarify its precise meaning or its part of
speech.
d.
Verify the preliminary determination of
the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by
checking the inferred meaning in context or in
a dictionary).
4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and
multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade
8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a
range of strategies.
a.
Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a
sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or
function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning
of a word or phrase.
b.
Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin
affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a
word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).
c.
Consult general and specialized reference
materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries,
thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the
pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify
its precise meaning or its part of speech.
d.
Verify the preliminary determination of the
meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking
the inferred meaning in context or in a
dictionary).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative
language, word relationships, and nuances in word
meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g.,
personification) in context.
b. Use the relationship between particular words
(e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category)
to better understand each of the words.
c. Distinguish among the connotations
(associations) of words with similar
denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy,
scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative
language, word relationships, and nuances in word
meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary,
biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.
b. Use the relationship between particular words
(e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better
understand each of the words.
c. Distinguish among the connotations
(associations) of words with similar
denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined,
respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language,
word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony,
puns) in context.
b. Use the relationship between particular words
to better understand each of the words.
c. Distinguish among the connotations
(associations) of words with similar denotations
(definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm,
persistent, resolute).
6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate
general academic and domain-specific words
and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge
when considering a word or phrase important to
comprehension or expression.
6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate
general academic and domain-specific words
and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge
when considering a word or phrase important to
comprehension or expression.
6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate
general academic and domain-specific words
and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge
when considering a word or phrase important to
comprehension or expression.

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Language Standards 6–12

The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing
broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
Conventions of Standard english
1.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and 1.
usage when writing or speaking.
a.
Use parallel structure.*
b.
Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial,
prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun,
relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest
to writing or presentations.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and
usage when writing or speaking.

a.
Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change
over time, and is sometimes contested.
b.
Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g.,
Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage, Garner’s Modern American
Usage) as needed.

2.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization,
punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a.
Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more
closely related independent clauses.
b.
Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
c.
Spell correctly.
3.
Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in
different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to
comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
a.
Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual
(e.g., MLA Handbook, Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the
discipline and writing type.
2.
Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization,
punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a.
Observe hyphenation conventions.
b.
Spell correctly.
3.
Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in
different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to
comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
a.
Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences)
for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of
complex texts when reading.
Knowledge of Language
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Language Standards 6–12

Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
Vocabulary acquisition and Use

4.
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and 4.
phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a
range of strategies.
a.
Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a
word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word
or phrase.
b.
Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different
meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate,
advocacy).
c.
Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries,
glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of
a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its
etymology.
d.
Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase
(e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and
phrases based on grades 11–12 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a
range of strategies.

a.
Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a
word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word
or phrase.
b.
Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different
meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, conceivable).
c.
Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries,
glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation
of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its
etymology, or its standard usage.
d.
Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase
(e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and 5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and
nuances in word meanings. nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole, paradox) in context and analyze
analyze their role in the text. their role in the text.
b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. b. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

6.
Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and
phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college
and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary
knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or
expression.
6.
Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and
phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college
and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary
knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or
expression.
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Language Progressive Skills, by Grade

The following skills, marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1–3, are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied
to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking.

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Standard
Grade(s)
3 4 5 6 7 8 9–10 11–12
L.3.1f. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.
L.3.3a. Choose words and phrases for effect.
L.4.1f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
L.4.1g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to/too/two; there/their).
L.4.3a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*
L.4.3b. Choose punctuation for effect.
L.5.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
L.5.2a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.†
L.6.1c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
L.6.1d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
L.6.1e. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and
use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.
L.6.2a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
L.6.3a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.‡
L.6.3b. Maintain consistency in style and tone.
L.7.1c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.
L.7.3a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and
redundancy.
L.8.1d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
L.9–10.1a. Use parallel structure.
* Subsumed by L.7.3a
† Subsumed by L.9–10.1a
‡ Subsumed by L.11–12.3a

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Standard 10

Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading 6–12

Measuring Text Complexity: Three Factors


Qualitative evaluation of the text: Levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality
and clarity, and knowledge demands

Quantitative evaluation of the text: Readability measures and other scores of text complexity


Matching reader to text and task:
Reader variables (such as motivation, knowledge, and
experiences) and task variables (such as purpose and
the complexity generated by the task assigned and the
questions posed)

note: More detailed information on text complexity and how it is measured is contained in
Appendix A.

Range of Text Types for 6–12

Students in grades 6–12 apply the Reading standards to the following range of text types, with texts selected from a broad range of cultures and periods.

Literature Informational Text
Stories drama Poetry Literary nonfiction

Includes the subgenres of Includes one-act and multi-act Includes the subgenres of Includes the subgenres of exposition, argument, and functional text in
adventure stories, historical plays, both in written form and narrative poems, lyrical poems, the form of personal essays, speeches, opinion pieces, essays about
fiction, mysteries, myths, on film free verse poems, sonnets, art or literature, biographies, memoirs, journalism, and historical,
science fiction, realistic fiction, odes, ballads, and epics scientific, technical, or economic accounts (including digital sources)
allegories, parodies, satire, and written for a broad audience
graphic novels


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Texts Illustrating the Complexity, Quality, and Range of Student Reading 6–12


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Standard 10

Literature: Stories, Dramas, Poetry Informational Texts: Literary Nonfiction
6–8
. Little Women by Louisa May Alcott (1869)
. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain (1876)
. “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost (1915)
. The Dark Is Rising by Susan Cooper (1973)
. Dragonwings by Laurence Yep (1975)
. Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by Mildred Taylor (1976)
. “Letter on Thomas Jefferson” by John Adams (1776)
. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave by
Frederick Douglass (1845)
. “Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat: Address to Parliament on May 13th,
1940” by Winston Churchill (1940)
. Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad by Ann
Petry (1955)
. Travels with Charley: In Search of America by John Steinbeck (1962)
9–10
. The Tragedy of Macbeth by William Shakespeare (1592)
. “Ozymandias” by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1817)
. “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe (1845)
. “The Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry (1906)
. The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck (1939)
. Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury (1953)
. The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara (1975)
. “Speech to the Second Virginia Convention” by Patrick Henry (1775)
. “Farewell Address” by George Washington (1796)
. “Gettysburg Address” by Abraham Lincoln (1863)
. “State of the Union Address” by Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1941)
. “Letter from Birmingham Jail” by Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964)
. “Hope, Despair and Memory” by Elie Wiesel (1997)
11–
CCR
. “Ode on a Grecian Urn” by John Keats (1820)
. Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë (1848)
. “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” by Emily Dickinson (1890)
. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald (1925)
. Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston (1937)
. A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry (1959)
. The Namesake by Jhumpa Lahiri (2003)
. Common Sense by Thomas Paine (1776)
. Walden by Henry David Thoreau (1854)
. “Society and Solitude” by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1857)
. “The Fallacy of Success” by G. K. Chesterton (1909)
. Black Boy by Richard Wright (1945)
. “Politics and the English Language” by George Orwell (1946)
. “Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry” by Rudolfo Anaya (1995)
Note:
Given space limitations, the illustrative texts listed above are meant only to show individual titles that are representative of a range of topics and genres.
(See Appendix B for excerpts of these and other texts illustrative of grades 6–12 text complexity, quality, and range.) At a curricular or instructional level,
within and across grade levels, texts need to be selected around topics or themes that generate knowledge and allow students to study those topics or
themes in depth.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS


StandardS for

Literacy in
History/Social Studies,
Science, and technical Subjects

6–12


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

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College and Career readiness anchor Standards for reading

The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end
of each grade span. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number.
The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter
providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

Key Ideas and details

1.
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual
evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
2.
Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details
and ideas.
3.
Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Craft and Structure

4.
Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative
meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
5.
Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a
section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
6.
Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

7.
Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as
well as in words.*
8.
Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as
the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
9.
Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the
approaches the authors take.
range of reading and Level of text Complexity

10.
Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
*Please see “Research to Build and Present Knowledge” in Writing for additional standards relevant to gathering,
assessing, and applying information from print and digital sources.

Note on range and content
of student reading

Reading is critical to building
knowledge in history/social studies
as well as in science and technical
subjects. College and career ready
reading in these fields requires
an appreciation of the norms and
conventions of each discipline, such as
the kinds of evidence used in history
and science; an understanding of
domain-specific words and phrases;
an attention to precise details; and
the capacity to evaluate intricate
arguments, synthesize complex
information, and follow detailed
descriptions of events and concepts.
In history/social studies, for example,
students need to be able to analyze,
evaluate, and differentiate primary
and secondary sources. When
reading scientific and technical
texts, students need to be able to
gain knowledge from challenging
texts that often make extensive use
of elaborate diagrams and data to
convey information and illustrate
concepts. Students must be able to
read complex informational texts
in these fields with independence
and confidence because the vast
majority of reading in college and
workforce training programs will
be sophisticated nonfiction. It is
important to note that these Reading
standards are meant to complement
the specific content demands of the
disciplines, not replace them.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6–12

The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K–5 reading in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K–5 Reading
standards. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

RH
Grades 6–8 students: Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
Key Ideas and details

1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis
of primary and secondary sources.
1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis
of primary and secondary sources, attending
to such features as the date and origin of the
information.
1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis
of primary and secondary sources, connecting
insights gained from specific details to an
understanding of the text as a whole.
2. Determine the central ideas or information of a
primary or secondary source; provide an accurate
summary of the source distinct from prior
knowledge or opinions.
2. Determine the central ideas or information of a
primary or secondary source; provide an accurate
summary of how key events or ideas develop over
the course of the text.
2. Determine the central ideas or information of a
primary or secondary source; provide an accurate
summary that makes clear the relationships among
the key details and ideas.
3. Identify key steps in a text’s description of a
process related to history/social studies (e.g., how
a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised
or lowered).
3. Analyze in detail a series of events described in
a text; determine whether earlier events caused
later ones or simply preceded them.
3. Evaluate various explanations for actions or events
and determine which explanation best accords
with textual evidence, acknowledging where the
text leaves matters uncertain.

4.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases
as they are used in a text, including vocabulary
specific to domains related to history/social
studies.
4.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases
as they are used in a text, including vocabulary
describing political, social, or economic aspects of
history/social studies.
4.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as
they are used in a text, including analyzing how an
author uses and refines the meaning of a key term
over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines
faction in Federalist No. 10).
Craft and Structure
5. Describe how a text presents information (e.g., 5. Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize 5. Analyze in detail how a complex primary source
sequentially, comparatively, causally). key points or advance an explanation or analysis. is structured, including how key sentences,
paragraphs, and larger portions of the text
contribute to the whole.

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6.
Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s
point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language,
inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
7.
Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts,
graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other
information in print and digital texts.
6.
Compare the point of view of two or more
authors for how they treat the same or similar
topics, including which details they include and
emphasize in their respective accounts.
7.
Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g.,
charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in
print or digital text.
6.
Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the
same historical event or issue by assessing the
authors’ claims, reasoning, and evidence.
7.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of
information presented in diverse formats and media
(e.g., visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in
order to address a question or solve a problem.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
8. Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned
judgment in a text.
8. Assess the extent to which the reasoning and
evidence in a text support the author’s claims.
8. Evaluate an author’s premises, claims, and evidence
by corroborating or challenging them with other
information.
9. Analyze the relationship between a primary and
secondary source on the same topic.
9. Compare and contrast treatments of the same
topic in several primary and secondary sources.
9. Integrate information from diverse sources,
both primary and secondary, into a coherent
understanding of an idea or event, noting
discrepancies among sources.

range of reading and Level of text Complexity
10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend 10. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend 10. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend
history/social studies texts in the grades 6–8 text history/social studies texts in the grades 9–10 text history/social studies texts in the grades 11–CCR text
complexity band independently and proficiently. complexity band independently and proficiently. complexity band independently and proficiently.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6–12


RSTRST
Grades 6–8 students: Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
Key Ideas and details

1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis
of science and technical texts.
1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis
of science and technical texts, attending to the
precise details of explanations or descriptions.
1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of
science and technical texts, attending to important
distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or
inconsistencies in the account.
2. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a
text; provide an accurate summary of the text
distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
2. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a
text; trace the text’s explanation or depiction of
a complex process, phenomenon, or concept;
provide an accurate summary of the text.
2. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a
text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or
information presented in a text by paraphrasing
them in simpler but still accurate terms.
3. Follow precisely a multistep procedure when
carrying out experiments, taking measurements,
or performing technical tasks.
3. Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure
when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks,
attending to special cases or exceptions defined
in the text.
3. Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure
when carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical tasks;
analyze the specific results based on explanations
in the text.

Craft and Structure
4.
Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, 4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, 4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and
and other domain-specific words and phrases as and other domain-specific words and phrases as other domain-specific words and phrases as they
they are used in a specific scientific or technical they are used in a specific scientific or technical are used in a specific scientific or technical context
context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics. context relevant to grades 9–10 texts and topics. relevant to grades 11–12 texts and topics.
5.
Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a 5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among 5. Analyze how the text structures information or
text, including how the major sections contribute concepts in a text, including relationships among ideas into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating
to the whole and to an understanding of the topic. key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, understanding of the information or ideas.
energy).

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6.
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an
explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing
an experiment in a text.
7.
Integrate quantitative or technical information
expressed in words in a text with a version of that
information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart,
diagram, model, graph, or table).
6.
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an
explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing
an experiment in a text, defining the question the
author seeks to address.
7.
Translate quantitative or technical information
expressed in words in a text into visual form
(e.g., a table or chart) and translate information
expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an
equation) into words.
6.
Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an
explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing
an experiment in a text, identifying important
issues that remain unresolved.
7.
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of
information presented in diverse formats and
media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in
order to address a question or solve a problem.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
8. Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment 8. Assess the extent to which the reasoning and 8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and
based on research findings, and speculation in a evidence in a text support the author’s claim conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying
text. or a recommendation for solving a scientific or the data when possible and corroborating or
technical problem. challenging conclusions with other sources of
information.
9. Compare and contrast the information gained 9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text 9. Synthesize information from a range of sources
from experiments, simulations, video, or to those from other sources (including their own (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a
multimedia sources with that gained from reading experiments), noting when the findings support or coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon,
a text on the same topic. contradict previous explanations or accounts. or concept, resolving conflicting information when
possible.

range of reading and Level of text Complexity
10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend 10. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend 10. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend
science/technical texts in the grades 6–8 text science/technical texts in the grades 9–10 text science/technical texts in the grades 11–CCR text
complexity band independently and proficiently. complexity band independently and proficiently. complexity band independently and proficiently.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

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College and Career readiness anchor Standards for Writing

The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end
of each grade span. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number.
The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter
providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.

text types and Purposes*

1.
Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant
and sufficient evidence.
2.
Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately
through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
3.
Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details
and well-structured event sequences.
Production and distribution of Writing

4.
Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task,
purpose, and audience.
5.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.
6.
Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
research to Build and Present Knowledge

7.
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating
understanding of the subject under investigation.
8.
Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each
source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
9.
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
range of Writing

10.
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a
single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Note on range and content
of student writing

For students, writing is a key means
of asserting and defending claims,
showing what they know about a
subject, and conveying what they
have experienced, imagined, thought,
and felt. To be college and career
ready writers, students must take
task, purpose, and audience into
careful consideration, choosing words,
information, structures, and formats
deliberately. They need to be able to
use technology strategically when
creating, refining, and collaborating on
writing. They have to become adept
at gathering information, evaluating
sources, and citing material accurately,
reporting findings from their research
and analysis of sources in a clear
and cogent manner. They must have
the flexibility, concentration, and
fluency to produce high-quality first-
draft text under a tight deadline
and the capacity to revisit and
make improvements to a piece of
writing over multiple drafts when
circumstances encourage or require
it. To meet these goals, students must
devote significant time and effort to
writing, producing numerous pieces
over short and long time frames
throughout the year.

*These broad types of writing include many subgenres. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

WHST

Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6–12

The standards below begin at grade 6; standards for K–5 writing in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are integrated into the K–5 Writing
standards. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former
providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity.

Grades 6–8 students: Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
text types and Purposes
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1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific
1.
content.

a.
Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue,
acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from
alternate or opposing claims, and organize the
reasons and evidence logically.
b.
Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and
relevant, accurate data and evidence that
demonstrate an understanding of the topic or
text, using credible sources.
c.
Use words, phrases, and clauses to create
cohesion and clarify the relationships among
claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d.
Establish and maintain a formal style.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section
that follows from and supports the argument
presented.
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific 1.
content.

a.
Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the
claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims,
and create an organization that establishes
clear relationships among the claim(s),
counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b.
Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly,
supplying data and evidence for each while
pointing out the strengths and limitations
of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a
discipline-appropriate form and in a manner
that anticipates the audience’s knowledge
level and concerns.
c.
Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the
major sections of the text, create cohesion,
and clarify the relationships between claim(s)
and reasons, between reasons and evidence,
and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
d.
Establish and maintain a formal style and
objective tone while attending to the norms
and conventions of the discipline in which they
are writing.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section
that follows from or supports the argument
presented.
Write arguments focused on discipline-specific
content.

a.
Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s),
establish the significance of the claim(s),
distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or
opposing claims, and create an organization
that logically sequences the claim(s),
counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
b.
Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and
thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data
and evidence for each while pointing out the
strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and
counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form
that anticipates the audience’s knowledge
level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
c.
Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as
varied syntax to link the major sections of
the text, create cohesion, and clarify the
relationships between claim(s) and reasons,
between reasons and evidence, and between
claim(s) and counterclaims.
d.
Establish and maintain a formal style and
objective tone while attending to the norms
and conventions of the discipline in which they
are writing.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section
that follows from or supports the argument
presented.

Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

WHST

Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6–12

Grades 6–8 students: Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
text types and Purposes (continued)

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2.
Write informative/explanatory texts, including 2.
the narration of historical events, scientific
procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
a.
Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what
is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and
information into broader categories as
appropriate to achieving purpose; include
formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g.,
charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to
aiding comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen
facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations,
or other information and examples.
c.
Use appropriate and varied transitions to
create cohesion and clarify the relationships
among ideas and concepts.
d.
Use precise language and domain-specific
vocabulary to inform about or explain the
topic.
e.
Establish and maintain a formal style and
objective tone.
f.
Provide a concluding statement or section that
follows from and supports the information or
explanation presented.
Write informative/explanatory texts, including
the narration of historical events, scientific
procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.

a.
Introduce a topic and organize ideas,
concepts, and information to make important
connections and distinctions; include
formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g.,
figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to
aiding comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant,
and sufficient facts, extended definitions,
concrete details, quotations, or other
information and examples appropriate to the
audience’s knowledge of the topic.
c.
Use varied transitions and sentence structures
to link the major sections of the text, create
cohesion, and clarify the relationships among
ideas and concepts.
d.
Use precise language and domain-specific
vocabulary to manage the complexity of
the topic and convey a style appropriate to
the discipline and context as well as to the
expertise of likely readers.
e.
Establish and maintain a formal style and
objective tone while attending to the norms
and conventions of the discipline in which they
are writing.
f.
Provide a concluding statement or section
that follows from and supports the information
or explanation presented (e.g., articulating
implications or the significance of the topic).
2.
Write informative/explanatory texts, including
the narration of historical events, scientific
procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
a.
Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas,
concepts, and information so that each new
element builds on that which precedes it to
create a unified whole; include formatting
(e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures,
tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding
comprehension.
b.
Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the
most significant and relevant facts, extended
definitions, concrete details, quotations, or
other information and examples appropriate to
the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
c.
Use varied transitions and sentence structures
to link the major sections of the text, create
cohesion, and clarify the relationships among
complex ideas and concepts.
d.
Use precise language, domain-specific
vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor,
simile, and analogy to manage the complexity
of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance
in a style that responds to the discipline and
context as well as to the expertise of likely
readers.
e.
Provide a concluding statement or section
that follows from and supports the information
or explanation provided (e.g., articulating
implications or the significance of the topic).
3. (See note; not applicable as a separate 3. (See note; not applicable as a separate 3. (See note; not applicable as a separate
requirement) requirement) requirement)
Note:
Students’ narrative skills continue to grow in these grades. The Standards require that students be able to incorporate narrative elements effectively into
arguments and informative/explanatory texts. In history/social studies, students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of
individuals or events of historical import. In science and technical subjects, students must be able to write precise enough descriptions of the step-by-step
procedures they use in their investigations or technical work that others can replicate them and (possibly) reach the same results.


Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

WHST

Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6–12

Grades 6–8 students: Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students:
Production and distribution of Writing
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which 4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which
the development, organization, and style are the development, organization, and style are the development, organization, and style are
appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

5.
With some guidance and support from peers and
adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed
by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a
new approach, focusing on how well purpose and
audience have been addressed.
5.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by
planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying
a new approach, focusing on addressing what
is most significant for a specific purpose and
audience.
5.
Develop and strengthen writing as needed by
planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying
a new approach, focusing on addressing what
is most significant for a specific purpose and
audience.
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6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, 6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce,
and publish writing and present the relationships publish, and update individual or shared writing publish, and update individual or shared writing
between information and ideas clearly and products, taking advantage of technology’s products in response to ongoing feedback,
efficiently. capacity to link to other information and to display including new arguments or information.
information flexibly and dynamically.

research to Build and Present Knowledge
7. Conduct short research projects to answer a
question (including a self-generated question),
drawing on several sources and generating
additional related, focused questions that allow for
multiple avenues of exploration.
7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research
projects to answer a question (including a self-
generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or
broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize
multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating
understanding of the subject under investigation.
7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research
projects to answer a question (including a self-
generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or
broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize
multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating
understanding of the subject under investigation.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple print
and digital sources, using search terms effectively;
assess the credibility and accuracy of each source;
and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions
of others while avoiding plagiarism and following
a standard format for citation.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple
authoritative print and digital sources, using
advanced searches effectively; assess the
usefulness of each source in answering the
research question; integrate information into the
text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas,
avoiding plagiarism and following a standard
format for citation.
8. Gather relevant information from multiple
authoritative print and digital sources, using
advanced searches effectively; assess the
strengths and limitations of each source in terms
of the specific task, purpose, and audience;
integrate information into the text selectively to
maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and
overreliance on any one source and following a
standard format for citation.

9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support 9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support 9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support
analysis reflection, and research. analysis, reflection, and research. analysis, reflection, and research.
range of Writing
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time
for reflection and revision) and shorter time for reflection and revision) and shorter time for reflection and revision) and shorter time
frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a
range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and
audiences. audiences. audiences.
Last updated  2012/02/20 17:53:31 ESTHits  304