# Astronomy Formative Assessment

 Name:

1. Why is it warmer in the summer and colder in the winter?
 Earth is closer to the Sun in summer The Sun releases more energy in the summer The angle of Earth's tilt on its axis realtive to the the Sun There is less wind in summer to blow the heat away

1. In terms of time, compared to a calendar (or "regular") year, a light year is
 less than a calendar year the same as a calendar year more than a calendar year

1. Rank the following, from closest to Earth to furthest from Earth
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sun Moon Mars Asteroid Belt The stars The edge of the solar system The edge of the galaxy

1. Rank the planets (including Pluto!) from closest to the Sun to furthest from the Sun
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Earth Jupiter Saturn Neptune Mercury Mars Uranus Pluto Venus

1. If you measure the solar system from the Sun to the edge of Pluto's orbit, which planet is closest to halfway out to the edge of the solar system?
 Mars Saturn Jupiter Uranus Neptune

1. About how old is Earth?
 4,500 years 4.5 million years 4.5 billion years 14.5 billion years

1. About how old is the universe?
 3,500 years 3.5 million years 13.5 billion years 13.5 trillion years

1. We know what distant stars are made of because
 we have sent satellites to them we analyze the light received from them we read about it in books people have landed on them at night when it is safe

1. Rank the following from MOST ot LEAST
 1 2 3 4 Number of cells in the human body Grains of sand on all the beaches in the entire world Numbers of stars in the entire universe Number of galaxies in the universe

1. Look at the attached picture of some of the phases of the Moon. What is the reason we see the different shapes?

 Earth casts a shadow on the Moon. The Sun casts a shadow on the Moon. The relative positions of the Sun, Earth and Moon. Clouds on Earth sometimes block part of the Moon from view. Clouds on the Moon sometimes bloc kpart of it from view. Varying degrees of soalr intensity.

1. Imagine you look up in the sky and see the Moon as it appears in the attached image. Based only upon this information, you should assume the Sun is

 to the east to the west down because it is midnight high in the sky because it is noon

1. A lunar eclipse can occur
 twice in a single month only during a full Moon only during a new Moon during both a full and a new Moon.

1. Which of the following is true?
 Light waves are faster the radio waves. Radio waves are faster than light waves. Radi waves and light waves move at the same velocity.

1. Gravity is the force that attracts massive obecjects such as the Sun, Earth, and Moon, and keeps them in orbit. Electron repulsion is the tendency of electons at the atomic level to repel each other. Which of the following is true?
 The force of gravity is stronger than electron repulsion. Electron repulsion is stronger than gravity. The two forces are identical in all circumstances.

1. Which of the following statements is most accurate?
 When you look up at the stars, you are looking into the past. When you look up at the stars, you are looking into the future. When you look up at the stars, you are seing the present.

1. A dimension is a magnitude of something in a specific direction. For example, length is a dimension. Think about the world around you. How many dimensions are there?
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 More than 12