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Basic Biological Chemistry

Review of terms found in Chapter 2 of Essential Cell Biology by Alberts, et al. (Garland Pub.).

acidproton donor
amino acidmonomer of protein containing a central carbon with amino, COOH, H and R groups
atomsmallest independent unit of chemical reactivity of an element
atomic weightmass of an atom expressed in daltons
atomic numbernumber of protons
baseproton acceptor
carbohydrategeneral term for simple sugars and their polymers
chemical bondlinkage between two atoms that holds them together in a molecule
condensation reactionpolymerization reactions that link monomers by removing a water across the new bond
conformationorientation in space of the atoms of a molecule
covalent bondstable chemical linkage of two atoms resulting from sharing pairs of electrons
dehydration synthesisanother name for condensation reaction
denaturationdisruption of the native conformation of a molecule
disulfide linkagecovalent linkage formed between the -SH groups of two cysteines
electronfundamental particle with charge of -1 and mass near 0
protonnuclear particle with charge of +1 and mass of 1
neutronnuclear particle with charge of 0 and mass of 1
fatty acidmolecule composed of carboxyl group linked to long hydrocarbon chain
functional groupspolar side chains that increase reactivity of organic compounds
glycolipidmembrane lipid with attached carbohydrate group
glycosidic linkagebond linking monomers in polysaccharides
hydrogen bondsweak bond formed by hydrogen covalently linked to one electronegative atom bonds to another because of charge
hydrolysisbreaking a chemical bond by addition of water across the bond
hydronium ionion created by adding a proton to water
hydrophilicterm given to polar molecules that dissolve readily in water
hydrophobicterm given to nonpolar molecules which do not dissolve readily in water
ioncharged atom or molecule
ionic bondsstrong chemical bonds formed between two oppositely charged atoms
isomersmolecules with same chemical formula but differing spatial arrangements
macromoleculelarge polymeric molecule
moleAvagadro's number of atoms/molecules of a substance
molecular weightmass of a molecule of a substance, in daltons
moleculetwo or more atoms linked together by chemical bonds
monomercharacteristic subunit of a macromolecule
monosaccharidesimple sugar
nonpolar covalent bondbond made through equal sharing of electrons
nucleic acidpolymer of nucleotides linked through phosphodiester bonds
nucleotidemonomer of nucleic acids
oligosaccharideshort polymer of simple sugars
peptide linkagecharacteristic bond between amino acids in proteins
pH- log [H+]
pH scalemeasure of the acidity of a substance with values between 0 and 14
phospholipidamphipathic molecule with two fatty acids and a phosphoric acid derivative esterified to glycerol
polar covalent bondchemical linkage made through unequal sharing of electrons
polar moleculemolecule that has regions of uneven charge in it
polymermolecule made by linking characteristic subunits together
polysaccharidelong polymer composed of simple sugars
primary structuresequence of amino acids in a protein
secondary structureorientation of peptide backbone in space
tertiary structureorientation of all atoms of a protein in space
quaternary structureorientation of subunits of multisubunit proteins in space
proteinpolymer of amino acids
RNApolymer of ribonucleotides
steroidlipid having a characteristic fused ring structure
sugaran organic molecule with -OH on every C except one, which has =O
triacylglycerolglycerol with three fatty acids esterified to it
triglycerideanother name for triacylglycerol
van der Waals forcesweak interaction between molecules due to transient electrical charge generation

Professor of Biology
Park University
Parkville, MO

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