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Earth Science - Rocks

Chapter 3 - Rocks

TEXTUREThe size, shape, and pattern of a rock's grains.
GRAINA particle of mineral or other rock that gives a rock texture.
IGNEOUS ROCKA type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
SEDIMENTARY ROCKA type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
METAMORPHIC ROCKA type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
EXTRUSIVE ROCKIgneous rock that forms from lava on Earth's surface.
BASALTA dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust.
INTRUSIVE ROCKIgneous rock that forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface.
GRANITEA usually light-colored rock that is found in continental crust.
PORPHYRITIC TEXTUREAn igneous rock texture in which large crystals are scattered on a background of much smaller crystals.
SILICAA material that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon; silica is found in magma.
SEDIMENTSmall, solid particles of material from rocks or organisms, which are moved by water or wind, resulting in erosion and deposition.
EROSIONThe process by which water, ice, wind, or gravity moves fragments of rock and soil.
DEPOSITIONThe process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it, and is deposited in a new location.
COMPACTIONThe process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.
CEMENTATIONThe process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.
CLASTIC ROCKSedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed together under high pressure.
ORGANIC ROCKSedimentary rock that is formed where remains of organisms are deposited in thick layers.
CHEMICAL ROCKSedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize from a solution.
CORAL REEFA structure of calcite skeletons built up by coral animals in warm, shallow ocean water.
ATOLLA ring-shaped coral island found far from land.
FOLIATEDTerm used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands.
ROCK CYCLEA series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another.

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