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LS Ch 14-Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles

Four characteristics of chordatesnotochord, postanal tail, nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches
notochordinternal chord in all chordates; extends along and supports upper body
postanal tailmuscular structure at end of developing chordates
nerve cordtube-like structure; developes into brain and spinal cord in vertebrates
pharyngeal pouchesfound in all developing chordates in region between mouth and digestive tube; develop into gills in fish; present in developing human embryos
Seven major groups of vertebratesjawless fish; jawed cartilaginous fish; bony fish; amphibians; reptiles; birds; mammals
vertebratessubgroup of chordates; have all characteristics of chordates plus: endoskeleton with backbone; head with skull; central body cavity containing internal organs; covered by protective skin; either endotherms or ectotherms
endoskeletoninternal framework made of bone and/or cartilage; place for muscle attachment; backbone; head with skull
ectotherms"cold-blooded"; internal body temperature changes with surroundings; fish, amphibians, reptiles
endotherms"warm blooded"; constant internal body temperature; birds and mammals
major characteristics of fishectotherms; fins for steering and balance; scales; sensory system; 2 chambered heart; gills for gas exchange; sexual reproduction
three categories of fishjawless (cartilage; lamprey, hagfish); jawed cartilaginous (sharks, skates, rays); bony
three types of bony fishlobe-finned; lungfish; ray-finned fish
lobe-finned fishtype of bony fish (ex., Coelocanth); perhaps ancestors to first land vertebrates (amphibians)
lungfishtype of bony fish; one lung and gills; can breathe air when water evaporates, burrow into mud
ray-finned fishmost species of bony fish; fins made of long, thin bones covered with skin; many body plans
imprtance of fishfood source; recreational and economic fishing; control insect populations; grass carp help keep waterways clear of grasses
characteristics of amphibiansfrom Greek word "amphibios"=double life; ectotherms; 3 chambered hear; need water to reproduce; most undergo metamorphosis; some breathe through skin; others have lungs
stages of amphibian metamorphosisegg--legless tadpole--tadpole with legs--young frog with developing legs--adult
types of amphibiansfrogs and toads; newts and salamanders
hibernationperiod of amphibian inactivity during cold weather
estivationperiod of amphibian inactivity during hot, dry weather
importance of amphibianskeep insect populations in balance; provide food for other animals; biological indicator species; used in medical research
characteristics of reptilesectotherms; breathe with lungs; most have 3 chambered heart; lay amniotic eggs
three living groups of reptileslizards and snakes; turtles; crocodilians
amniotic eggsprovide complete environment for reptile embryo development
lizards and snakeslargest group of reptiles; jaws unhinge for eating prey whole; most lizards have legs, most snakes do not; snakes are carnivores; keep small mammal populations in balance
turtles2-part shell of hard bony plates; vertebrae and ribs fused to top shell; muscles attach to top and bottom shell; live in water or on land (tortoises); do not care for young
examples of crocodillianscrocodiles; alligators; gavials
characteristics of crocodillianslizard shaped reptiles with large, deep scales on back; found in or near water in warm climates; reptiles with 4 chambered heart
crocodilescrocodillians with narrow head with triangular snout; very aggressive, can attack large animals
alligatorscrocodillians with broad head and rounded snout; feed on fish, turtles, waterfowl
gavialscrocodillians with slender snouts with bulbous growth at one end; feed mainly on fish
importance of reptileshelp keep pest (mice, rats, insects) populations under control; food for other animals
origin of reptilesfirst appeared 345 mya; dinosaurs may have descended from early reptiles

Science Instructor
Episcopal Collegiate School
Little Rock, AR

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