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Chemistry of Life

Review of basic biochemical terms.

AB
amino acidmonomeric subunit of proteins
ADPadenosine diphosphate
ATPadenosine triphosphate
carbohydrategeneral term for simple sugars and their polymers
celluloseglucose polymer found in plant cell walls
chitinpolysaccharide found in exoskeleton of arthropods and fungal cell walls
complementary base pairingin opposite DNA strands, adenine paired with thymine, guanine with cytosine
condensation reactionformation of bond between monomers to make a polymer
denaturedloss of a macromolecule's normal shape
disaccharidetwo sugars linked by a glycosidic linkage
dipeptidetwo amino acids linked together
DNAdouble stranded nucleic acid that is the cell's heritable material
deoxyribose5C sugar lacking an OH at C2
enzymebiological catalyst
fatsolid triglyceride (at room temp)
fatty acidsa long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group on one end
glucose6 carbon sugar commonly found in polysaccharides
glycogenenergy storage polymer of glucose in animals
hydrolysisbreaking a polymer into monomers by adding water across bonds
hydrophilicdissolves in water
hydrophobicdoes not dissolve in water
inorganic moleculemolecules that constitute nonliving matter
isomersmolecules with same chemical formula but different arrangement of atoms
lipidmolecule that does not dissolve in water, but dissolves in nonpolar solvents
monomersubunit used to build large molecules using characteristic linkages
monosaccharidesimple sugar
nucleic acidpolymer of nucleotides
nucleotidemonomer of nucleic acids
oilliquid triglyceride (at room temp)
organic moleculecarbon and hydrogen containing molecules in living matter
peptidepolymer of two or more amino acids
peptide bondlinkage used to polymerize amino acids into proteins
phospholipidglycerol molecule with two fatty acids and a phosphate head group
polymerlong chain of characteristic subunits held together by characteristic bonds
polypeptidemore than three amino acids linked together
proteinforty or more amino acids linked together
polysaccharidepolymer of sugars linked together with glycosidic linkages
ribose5C sugar found in RNA
RNAsingle stranded nucleic acid, polymer of ribonucleotides
starchenergy storage polymer of glucose in plants
steroidlipid class with fused ring structure
triglyceridethree fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule
waxlong fatty acid chains linked to long chain alcohols


Professor of Biology
Park University
Parkville, MO

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