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11.8 The Cold War and Beyond

The Americans-Reconstruction to 20th Century
Chapter 18, 20.1, Chapter 22, 25.4

satellite nationsthis gorup consisted entirely of Eastern European nations
satellite nationsthis group was dependent on and dominated by the Soviet Union
Berlin airliftthis action provided vital supplies to a region blockaded by the Soviet Union
Joseph Stalinhe signed a nonagression pact with Hitler in 1939
United Nationsboth the US and USSR joined this group after WWII
Harry Trumanhe arranged for about $600 million in aid to be sent to postwar Turkey and Greece
NATOthis defensive military alliance was the first military alliance that the US ever entered during peacetime
Marshall Planthis aid package was directed "not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos"
Cold Warthis term refers to the indirect but hostile conflict between the US and the USSR that began at the end of WWII
Balfour Declarationthis is the name given to a 1917 letter from a British foreign secretary who seemed to make promises to both Zionists and Palestinians
Suez Crisisthis occured in 1956 when Egyptian president Gamal Nasser siezed control of certain French and British interests in Egypt
Six-Day Warthis resulted in Israel's 1967 annexation of the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, Jerusalem, and the West Bank
Golda Meirin the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, this Israeli prime minister (a former Wisconsin resident) launched a counterattack to regain lost territory
Menachem Beginin 1978, this Israeli prime minister signed the Camp David Accords and agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt
Anwar Sadatthis Egyptian president signed the Camp David Accords and reconized Israel as a legitimate state, enraging many Arabs
Hosni Mubarakthis Egyptian president took office after the assassination of Anwar Sadat by Muslim extremists in 1981; he has kept the peace with Israel
PLOthis terrorist group conducts violent attacks against Israel, which, in return, bombs the Palenstinian towns from which it operates
Yitzhak Rabinthis Israeli prime minsiter signed the Oslo peace agreement, won the Nobel Prize, and was assassinated in 1995 by a Jewish extremist
Yasir Arafatterrorist leader of the PLO
Muhammad Ali Jinnahleader of the Muslim League who supported the partition of India
Indira GandhiIndian prime minister who was assassinated by Sikh extremists for ordering the attack on the Golden Temple
Anwar SadatEgyptian prime minister who signed the Camp David Accords
Rajiv Gandhiformer prime minister of India who was assassinated by a Tamil terrorist
Fidel Castrohe accepted Soviet aid for Cuba
Fidel Castrocommunist dictator of Cuba
CubaFidel Castro is the communist dictator of this country
Nikita Khrushchevhe squared off against Kennedy during the Berlin crisis
John F. Kennedyhe squared off against Khrushchev during the Berlin crisis
Limited Test Ban Treatythis barred the explosion of nuclear devices in the atmosphere
hot linethis was a direct communication link set up during Kennedy's presidency
flexible responsethis military strategy was adopted during the Kennedy presidency
Geneva Accordsthis temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel
Tonkin Gulf Resolutionthis granted the US president broad military powers in Vietnam
Operation Rolling Thunderthis was the first extensive bombing of North Vietnam
Dien Bien Phuwhen this fell ot Vietnamese forces, the French began to leave Vietnam
domino theorythis is based on the idea that countries on the brink of communism were waiting to fall one after the other
Ho Chi Minh Trailthis allowed Communists in North Vietnam to supply military arms to the government opposition group in SOuth Vietnam
Vietminhthis was a South Vietnamese opposition group that carried out thousads of assassinations of South Vietnamese government officials
Ho Chi Minhhe led the Indochinese Communist Party and fough French, Japanese, and US forces for the independence of Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diemthis Vietnamese anti-Communist declared himself the ruler of SOuth Vietnam and canceled elections that were supposed to unify Vietnam
strategic hamlet programthis South Vietnamese policy was intended to combat the growing popularity and presence of an antigovernment group in the SOuth's countryside
Vietcongthis group, formed by Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups in 1941, declared its single goal to be independence from foreign rule
Iraqthis nation invaded Kuwait in 1990
USSRMikhail Gorbachev resigned as the president of this nation
Iraqthis nation's actions led the US and its allies to launch Operation Desert Storm
Soviet Unionthis nation was the one most directly affected by the domestic policies known as glasnost and perestroika
Henry Kissingerhe served as the top US negotiator in Vietnam
silent majorityin an attempt to win support for his war policies, Nixon made a special appeal to this group
Khmer Rougethis Communist group seized power in Cambodia after the US invasion of that coutnry unleased a brutal civl war
My Lai Massacrethis murder of 100 innocent Vietnamese villagers by US troops shocked Americans when it was finally revealed to the public
War Powers Actthis requires a president to inform Congress within 48 hours if US forces are sent into a hostile area without a declaration of war
Pentagon Paperspublication of this revealed, among other things, that the Johnson administration had lied to the American public about its intentions in Vietnam
Vietnamizationthis was specifically designed to bring an end to America's involvement in Vietnam and to bring about "peace with honor" in Vietnam
War Powers Actthis states that US troops are not remain longer than 90 days in a hostile area without Congressional approval or a declaration of war
Agent Orangethe US military used planes to spray this leaf-killing toxic chemical that devastated the landscape of Vietnam
Robert McNamaraas secretary of defense in the Johnson administration, he helped to craft and guide the US policy in Vietnam
napalmto expose Vietcong tunnels and hideouts, US planes dropped this gasoline-based bomb that set fire to the jungles of Vietnam
search-and-destroy missionconducted by US soldiers, these resulted in the uprooting of Vietnamese villagers with suspected ties to the Vietcong, the killing of their livestock and the burning of their villages
William Westmorelandas the US commander in South Vietnam, this general introduced the concept of the body count in the belief that as the number of Vietcong casualties rose, the Vietcong would eventually surrender

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