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Introduction to Networking

This is the list of definitions I gave my students to study.

bpsthe rate at which a modem or other communications device transmits data
bridgea network device that connects two LANs, provided that the two LANs are NOS. It can be either a standalone device or can be implemented in a server with the addition of a second network card.
client/server networka network model that splits the computing workload into two separate but related areas
data bitsIn modem transfer, the number of bits used to represent a character
datagraman IP packet. It includes info such as the address of the host that sent the ___ and the address of the host that is supposed to receive the ___.
domain name systemon the Internet, a hierarchical distributed database system that converts host names into IP addresses.
dotted-decimal notationa format used to represent IP addresses. The 32 bits of the address are divided inot quads of 8 bits, which are then converted into IP addresses.
dynamic host control protocol (DHCP)a system that manages the dynamic location of IP addresses
FTP File Transfer Protocolan Internet protocol that defines file transfers between computers. Part of the TCP/IP suite.
gatewaya network computer or other device that acts as a middleman between two otherwise compatible systems. It translates the incoming and outgoing packets so each system can use the data
Internetworka network that combines two or more LANs by means of a special device, such as a bridge or router. Often called Internets for short, but they shouldn't be confused with the Internet, the global collection of computers.
IP addressthe unique address assigned to every host and router on the Internet
IPXa network layer protocol that addresses and routes packets from one network to another on an ___ internetwork.
SPXa transport layer protocol that enhances the IPX protocol by providing reliable delivery
LAN local area networka network in which all computers occupy a relatively small geographical area, such as a department, office, home, or building
local resourceany peripheral, file, folder, or application that is either attached directly to your computer or resides on your computer's hard disk
name resolutiona process that converts a host name into an IP address
NetBEUIan API that lets network applications-such as redirectors-communicate with networking protocol
networka collection of computers connected via special cables or other network media in order to share files, folders, disks, peripherals, and applications
NIC network interface cardan adapter that usually slips into an expansion bus slot inside a client or server computer. Its job is to serve as the connection point between the PC and the network
network layer protocola protocol in which no communications channel is established between nodes. Instead, the protocol builds each packet with all the information required for the network to deliver each packet and for the destination node to assemble everything
network news transport protocolan Internet protocol that defines how UseNet newsgroups and posting are transmitted. Part of the TCP/IP suite of protocols.
NOS network operating systemoperating system software that runs on a network and provides the various network services for the network clients.
network redirectora virtual device driver that lets applications find, open, read, write, and delete files on a remote drive
nodea computer on a network
packetthe data transfer unit used in network and modem communications. It contains a header, data, and trailer
peer-to-peer networka network in which no one computer is singled out to provide for special services, all computers have equal status
protocola set of standards that defines how information is exchanged between two sysstems across a network connection
redirectora networking driver that provides all the mechanisms needed for an application to communicate with a remote device, including file reads and writes, print job submissions, and resource sharing
remote resourceany peripheral, file, folder, or application that exists somewhere jon the network
repeatera device that boosts a network cable's signal so that the length of the network can be extended
routera device that makes decions about where to send the network packets it receives. Examines information and determines the most efficient route
routingthe process whereby packets travel from host to host until they eventually reach their destination
serverin a network, a computer that provides and manages services for the users on the network
SMTP simple mail transport protocolan Internet protocol that describes the format of e-mail messages and how the messages are delivered. Part of the TCP/IP suite.
socketin the TCP, a communications channel between two hosts that consists of their IP addresses and port numbers
start bitan extra bit added to the beginning of the data bits in a modem data transfer. This bit marks the beginning of each character.
stop bitan extra bit (or sometimes two) added to the end of the data bits in a modem data transfer. This bit marks the end of each character.
subnet maska 32-bit value, usually expressed in dotted-decimal notation, that lets IP separate a network ID from a full IP address and thus determine whether the source and destination hosts are on the same network.
TCP/IPan excellent choice of protocol for most networks because in it routable, robust, and reliable.
topologydescribes how the various nodes that comprise a network--which include not only computers, but also hubs and bridges (how connected)
transmission control protocola transport layer that sets up a connection between two hosts and ensures that data is reliably passed. If lost or damaged, retransmits packets.
transport layer protocola protocol in which a virtual communications channel is established between two systems. The protocol uses this channel to send packets between nodes.
uniform resource locatoran Internet addressing scheme that spells out the exact location of a net resource
wan wide area networka network that consists of two or more LANs or internetworks that are spaced out over a relatively large geographical area, such as a state, country, or the entire world.
Windows Internet Name Servicea service that maps NetBIOS names (the names you assign to computers in the Identification tab of the Network properties sheet) to the IP addresses assigned via DHCP.

Jo Anne Stegall

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