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Chapter 21 Vocabulary

Henry Bessemerdeveloped a process to purify iron ore and produce steel.
Alfred Nobelinvented dynamic, earning a huge fortune that allowed him to fund the Nobel Prize.
Michael Faradaycreated the first simple electric motor and the first dynamo, a generator of electricity.
Dynamoa machine that generates electricity.
Thomas Edisonmade the first electric light bulb.
Interchangeable Partsidentical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing.
Assembly Lineproduction method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks.
Orville and Wilber Wrightdesigned and successfully flew an airplane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
Guglielmo Maconiinvented the radio.
Stockshares in a company.
Corporationbusiness owned by many investors who buy shares of stock and risk only the amount of their investment.
Cartelassociation of large corporations formed to fix prices, set production quotas, or divide up markets.
Germ Theoryidea that certain microbes might cause specific infectious diseases.
Louis Pasteurfound link between microbes and disease; developed vaccines for rabies and anthrax; discovered the process of pasteurization for milk.
Robert Kochidentified the bacteria that causes tuberculosis.
Florence Nightingalean army nurse who insisted on better hygiene in field hospitals; worked to introduce sanitary measures in British hospitals; founded first nursing school.
Joseph Listerdiscovered how antiseptics prevent infection.
Urban Renewalrebuilding of the poor areas of the city.
Mutual-Aid Societyself-help group set up to aid sick or injured workers.
Standard of Livingmeasures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society.
Cult of Domesticityidealization of women and the home.
Temperance Movementcampaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages.
Elizabeth Cady Stantoncrusaded against slavery and then organized a movement for women's rights in the United States.
Women?s Suffrageright of woman to vote.
Sojourner TruthAfrican-American suffragist.
John Daltondeveloped modern atomic theory; showed how different atoms combine to make chemical substances.
Charles Darwinwrote On the Origin of Species; the work discusses the theory of evolution.
Racismbelief that one racial group is superior to another.
Social Gospelmovement in the 1800s that urged Christians to do social service.
William Wordsworthpoet of the romantic period who focused on glorified nature and strong emotions.
William BlakeEnglish poet, painter, and printmaker.
Romanticismnineteenth-century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason.
Lord ByronBritish poet who created a mysterious and melancholy hero.
Victor HugoFrench writer who re-created France's past in novels such as The Three Musketeers and The Hunchback of Notre Dame and who portrayed the ills of his era in Les Miserables.
Ludwig van Beethovencomposer who combined forms of music with stirring sounds; first to take advantage of a broad range of instruments in the modern orchestra.
Realismartistic movement whose aim was to represent the world as it is.
Charles DickensEnglish poet who vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers and factory workers, including children; his humor and colorful characters made him one of the most popular novelists in the world.
Gustave Courbetpainter who focused on ordinary subjects such as working-class people.
Louis Daguerreimproved technology of photography.
Impressionismschool of painting of the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting casual impressions.
Claude Monetimpressionist painter; brushed strokes of color without blending.
Vincent van Goghpainter who experimented with sharp brush lines and bright colors.

Japanese Teacher
Harrison High School
Farmington Hills, MI

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