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Social Studies: The Greek City States

frescoespaintings made on wet plaster walls
Minoansan early Greek civilization located on the island of Crete, whose citizens many times became sailors and traders
Mycenaeansan early Greek civilization from the mainland of Greece who conquered the Minoans
polisa Greek independent city-state
acropolisa hill on which a city-state built its fort
agoraa city-state's marketplace
mythstraditional stories about gods, goddesses and heroes
oralesspecial places where the Greek people believed the gods spoke through priests and priestesses
hoplitesnonaristocratic soldiers or heavy infantry who carried long spears and who fought in closely spaced rows
tyrantpeople who illegally took power but had the support of the people
popular governmentthe idea that people can govern themselves
democracya government in which citizens take part
Iliadan epic that tells the legend of the Trojan War
Odysseyan epic that tells the legend of the what happened after the Trojan War
Homera blind poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
Olympics Gamesan important contest which showed strength and bravery held every four years in honor of the the Greek God Zeus
aristocraciesGreek city-states that were controlled by nobles
ephorsSpartan government officials that were elected by the assembly
metricsa group of people in Athenian society who were noncitizens because they were born outside Athens
archonsnine elected rulers elected by the Athenian assembly
Dracoan archon who is believed to have created Athen's first written law code
Solonan archon who settled the disputes between creditors and debtors
Peisistratusa tyrant ruler who improved Athens' economy
Cleisthenesan Athenian ruler who turned it into a democracy
direct democracya form of government in which all citizens participate directly in making decisions.
representative democracya form of democracy in which citizens elect representatives to govern for them
importa good or service bought from another country or region
exporta good or service sold to another country or region
pedagoguea male slave who cared for and accompanied a male child after the age of seven, teaching him manners
SophistsAthenian men who opened schools for older boys
ethicsdeals with what is good and bad and moral duty
rhetoricthe study of oratory, or public speaking, and debating
Perian Warsa series of wars between Greece and Persia
Battle of Marathona battle won when the Persians invaded Greece
Battle of Thermopylaea battle in which the Spartans were badly out numbered and defeated by the Greekd buying the other city-states time to prepare their forces
Themistoclesa Greek leader who tricked the Persian navy into attacking them and defeated them
Periclesan Athenian leader who was a great general, orator, and statesman
Peloponnesian WarA war between Sparta and Athens

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