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Digestion, Absorption, & Transport

Anatomy, Muscular Action, regulation and Secretions of digestion, and circulatory systems.

absorptionthe taking up of nutrients into the intestinal cells
anusthe terminal sphincter of the GI tract
appendixa narrow blind sac extending from the beginning of the colon
arterya vessel that carries blood away from the heart
-asea word ending denoting an enzyme
bicarbonatean alkaline secretion of the pancreas
bilean emulsifier that prepares fats and oils for digestion, stored in the gallbladder and an exocrine secretion made by the liver
bolusa portion; with respect to food, amount swallowed at one time
capillarya small vessel that branches from an artery
carbohydrasean enzyme that hydrolyzes carbohydrates
cardiac sphincterthe sphincter muscle at the junction between the esophagus and the stomach
catalysta compound that facilitates chemical reactions without itself being changed in the process
cholecystokinin or CCKa hormone produced by cells of the intestinal wall. Target organ: the gall bladder
chymethe semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
colonthe lower portion of the intestione that completes the digestive process
cryptstubular glands that lie between the intestinal villi and secrete intestinal juices into the small intestine
digestionthe process by which food is broken down into absorbable units
digestion enzymesproteins found in digestive juices that act on food substances, causing them to break down into simpler compounds
duodenumthe top portion of the small intestine
emulsifiera substance with both water-soluble and fat-soluble portion that promotes the mixing of oils and fats in a watery solution
endocrine glandsa cell or group of cells that secrete their materials into the blood
enterogastronesgastrointestinal hormones
epiglottiscartilage in the throat that guards the entrance to the trachea and prevents fluid or food from entering it when a person swallows
esophagusthe food pipe; the conduit from the mouth to the stomach
exocrine glandsglands that secrete materials into the digestive tract or onto the surface of the skin
feceswaste matter discharged from the colon
gallbladderthe organ that stores and concentrates biles
gastric glandsexocrine glands in the stomach wall that secrete gastric juices into the stomach
gastric juicethe digestive secretion of the gastric glands of the stomach
gastric-inhibitory peptidea hormone produced by the intestine - slows down the secretion of gastric juices and of GI motility
gastrina hormone secreted by cells in the stomach wall; secretion of gastric juice
GI tractthe gastrointestinal tract or digestion tract, principal organs are the stomach and intestines
glanda cell or group of cells that secrete materials for special uses in the body
goblet cellscells of the GI tract and lungs that secrete mucus
hepatic veinthe vein that collects blood from the liver capillaries and returns it to the heart
homeostasisthe maintenance of constant internal conditions by the body's control systems
hormoneschemical messengers
hydrochloric acidthe gastric glands normally produce this acid
hydrolysisa chemical reaction in which a major reactant is split into two products, with the addition of H to one and OH to the other (from water)
ileocecal valvethe sphincter separating the small and large intestines
ileumthe last segment of the small intestine
jejunumthe first two-fifths of the small intestine beyond the duodenum
large intestinethe lower portion of the intestine that completes the digestive process
lipasean enzyme that hydrolyzes lipids
liverthe organ that manufactures bile and is the first to receive nutrients form the intestines
lympha clear yellowish fluid that resembles blood without the red blood cells; also transports fat from the GI tract transports fat and fat-soluble vitamin to the bloodstream via lymphatic vessels
lymphatic systema loosely organized system of vessels and ducts that convey fluids toward the heart
microvillitiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells
motilitythe ability of the GI tract muscles to move
mucusa slippery substance secreted by goblet cells of the GI lining that protects the cells from exposure to digestive juices
pancreasa gland that secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum
pancreatic juicesthe exocrine secretion of the pancreas, containing enzymes for the digestion of carbohydrates, fat, and protein as well as bicarbonate
peristalsisa wavelike muscular contactions of the GI tract that push its contents along
pHthe unit of measure expressing a substance's acidity or alkalinity
portal veinthe vein that collects blood from the GI tract and conducts it to capillaries in the liver
proteasean enzyme that hydrolyzes proteins
pyloric sphincterthe circular muscle that sepertes the stomach from the small intestine and regulates the flow of partially digested food into the sm. intestine
rectumthe muscular terminal part of the intestine, extending from the sigmoid colon to the anus
refluxa backward flow
salivathe secretion of the salivary glands; the principal enzyme that begins carbohydrate digestion
salivary glandsexocrine glands that secrete saliva into the mouth
secretina hormone produced by cells in the duodenum wall. Target organ- the pancreas
segmentationa periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intestine at intervals along its length by its circular muscles
small intestine a 10ft length of small-diameter intestine that is the major site of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients, its segments are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
sphinctera circular muscle surrounding, and able to close, a body opening
stomacha muscular, elastic, saclike portion of the digestive tract that grinds and churns swallowed food, mixing it with acid and enzymes to form chyme
stoolswaste matter discharged from the colon
subclavian veinconnects the thoracic duct with the right upper chamber of the heart, providing a passageway by which lymph can be returned to the vascular system
thoracic ductthe duct that conveys lymph toward the heart
tracheathe windpipe; the passageway from the mouth and nose to the lungs
veina vessel that carries blood back to the heart
villifingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine


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