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Chap. 2 Cell Processes and Energy vocab

Prentice Hall Life Science - Science Explorer Vocabulary

elementany substance that can't be broken down into simpler substances
atomsmallest unit of an element
compoundtwo or more elements combine chemically
moleculesmallest unit of a compound
organic compoundcompound that contains carbon
inorganic compoundcompound that doesn't contain carbon
proteinlarge organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sometimes sulfur
amino acidssmall unit that is linked together chemically to form large protein molecules
enzymetype of protein that speeds up chemical reaction in living thing
carbohydrateenergy-rich organic compound (sugar, starch)
lipidenergy-rich organic compound such as fats, oils, and waxes
nucleic acidlarge organic molecule that contains instructions to carry out functions of the cell
DNAgenetic material carries information
RNAplays important role in production of proteins
selectivly permeablecell membranes - only some substances can pass through
diffusionprocess where molecules move from an area of highly concentrated to less concentrated
osmosisdiffusion of water molecules through membrane
passive transportmovement without energy
active transportmovement with energy
photosynthesisprocess by which plants capture light energy and use it to make food
pigmentcolored chemical compound that absorbs light- produces color
chlorophyllgreen pigment found in chloroplasts
stomatasmall openings of leaves
respirationprocess where cells break down simple food molecules to release energy
fermentationprovides energy for cells without using oxygen
cell cyclesequence of growth and division of cells
interphasestage of cell cycle before cell division
replicationmakes copy of DNA in nucleus
mitosisstage of cell cycle during which cell's nucleus divides into 2 new nuclei
chromosomerod-shaped carries genetic info that controls inherited traits (eye color)
chromatidone identical rod of a chromosome
cytokinesisfinal stage of cell cycle - organelles distributed

North Crawford High School

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