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A&P 1 Terms

Terms and definitions for A&P 1

Exocrine GlandGland that secretes to a surface or outward through a duct
Endocrine GlandDuctless gland that secretes a hormone internally, usually into the circulation.
Integumentnatural covering,skin structure
KeratinA waterproofing protein found in skin, hair, nails, and horns
EpidermisOuter portion of the skin formed of epithelial tissue that rests on or covers the dermis
DermisDense, irregular connective tissue that forms the deep layer of the skin.
HypodermisLoose areolar connective tissue found deep to the dermis that connects the skin to muscle or bone
Melaninyellow, gold, lt brown, black pigment. A group of related molecules responsible for skin, hair, and eye color.
Caroteneyellow orange pigment, in vegtables & fruit (lipid soluable) goes into the body fat
HemoglobinRed pigment, pinish or reddish hue, activated by the sun, respiratory protein of erythrocytes; consists of 6% heme and 94% globin; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
Hemopoiesis[blood,making] Formation of the formed elements of blood, that is, red blood cells, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
Mesenchymal Cellirregularly shaped embryonic cells
Osteoprogenitor Cellprecursor cells of chondroblasts and osteoblasts
Osteocytemaintain bone, Mature bone cell surrounded by bone matrix
OsteoblastBone-forming cell
Osteoclastbone destruction, Large multinucleated cell that absorbs bone
Yellow MarrowFat storage tissue in certain bone cavities
Red Marrowsite of blood cell production
Compact BoneHard bone consisting of Haversian systems cemented together.
Spongy Bone[cancellous bone]: Bone that consists of bars and plates separated by irregular spaces
OssificationBone formation
Intramembranous OssificationFormation of bone from ossification of layers of connective tissue.
Endochondral OssificationFormation of bone through calcification of hyaline cartilage.
ArticulationA joint
Synarthrosesimmovable joint, A joint with little or no movement.
AmphiathrosesA slightly movable joint
DiarthrosesA freely movable joint
Synovial Jointajoint (synovial) cavity is present between bones. A joint containing synovia [a substance that serves as a lubricant in a joint, tendon sheath, or bursa].
TendonBand or cord of dense connective tissue that connects a muscle to a bone or other structure.
Muscle FiberMuscle cell
Muscle Faciculusbundle of muscle fibers and endomysin
Myofibrilcontractile unit, A bundle of myofilaments forming an internal subdivision of a cardiac or skeletal muscle cell.
SarcomereFunctional unit of contraction, Part of a myofibril,thin filaments attach to Z disks & thick filaments wedge between thin.
Thick Filamentwedges inbetween thin (myosin)
Thin FilamentActin, Troomyosin, Troponin, thin filament attaches to Z-disk
Actinbinding site for Myosin heads, (twisted pearls) The contractile protein that makes up thin myofilaments in muscle fiber.
MyosinMolecular motors, Interact with actin filaments: Utilize energy from ATP hydrolysis to generate mechanical forceForce generation: Associated with movement of myosin heads to tilt toward each other
Innervationnerve suppl to a muscle or gland.
Motor Neuronnerve cell which innervates muscle or glands.
Motor Unita single motor neuron plus all the muscle cells it innervates.
Neuromuscular Junctionfunctional connection between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle cells.
NeurotransmittersAny specific chemical agent released by a presynaptic cell on excitation that crosses the synaptic cleft and stimulates or inhibits the postsynaptic cell.
Muscle TwitchContraction of a whole muscle in response to a stimulus that causes an action potential in one or more muscle fibers.
Tetanusa smooth sustained contraction responding to multiple stimuli,(lockjaw) an anaerobe commonly found in ruminants and manure. Causes severe tonic muscle spasms.
Recruitmentto join together, enforcement, strengthen
Muscle ToneRelatively constant tension produced by a muscle for long periods as a result of asynchronous contraction of motor units
MyoglobinA red oxygen-storage pigment of muscle; supplements hemoglobin in providing oxygen for aerobic muscle metabolism.
Phosphocreatine - creatine phospateprovides the phosphate to rebuild more ATP
Aerobicaerobic respiration: Breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and approximately 38 ATPs; includes glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain
Anaerobicanaerobic respiration: Breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen to produce lactic acid and two ATPs; consists of glycolysis and the reduction of pyruvic acid to lactic acid
NeuronMorphologic and functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the nerve cell body, the dendrites, and the axon. Which have the properties of excitability and conductivity
NeurogliaCells which do not conduct nerve impulses but serve as supportive, binding, protective, and nutritive cells. Cells in the nervous system other than the neurons; includes astrocytes, ependymal cells, microglia, oligodendrocytes, satellite cells, and Schwann cells.
SensoryAfferent division of the peripheral nervous system
MotorEfferent division of the peripheal nervous system
Integrative Functionfrom one to another, as in sensory and motor neaurons in the CNS
Somatic[bodily] Relating to the body, the cells of the body except the reproductive cells.
VisceralPertaining to the contents of a body cavity
Soma(cell body) The nucleus containing central part of a neuron.
AxonMain central process of a neuron that normally conducts action potentials away from the neuron cell body.
DendriteA process of a neuron that receives information from other cells or from environmental stimuli and conducts signals to the soma.
Nerve FiberThe axon of a single neuron.
Nerve TractBundles of parallel axons with their associated sheaths in the central nervous system.
Ganglion[swelling, or knot] Any group of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system
Multipolar NeuronOne of three categories of neurons consisting of a neuron cell body, an axon, and two or more dendrites
Bipolar NeuronOne of the three categories of neurons consisting of a neuron with two processesóone dendrite and one axonóarising from opposite poles of the cell body.
Unipolar NeuronOne of the three categories of neurons consisting of a nerve cell body with a single axon projecting from it, also called a pseudounipolar neuron.
Afferent Neuronssensory neuron, A neuron that carries an impulse toward the central nervous system.
Efferent Neuronmotor neurons, carries an impluse away from the central nervous system
Association NeuronA nerve cell lying completely within the central nervous system that carries impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons. Also called an interneuron or connecting neuron
Myelinated Fibernerve fiber, makes up myelinated sheath

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