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Science Flashcards, ch 23 & 24

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ozoneimportant substance in the upper atmosphere and is a form of oxygen
atmospheric dustvarious kinds of tiny solid particles
nitrogen cycleamount of nitrogen n atmosphere that it is maintained through
atmospheric pressureratio of teh weight of the air to the area of the surface on which it presses
barometerinsstrument that measures atmospheric pressure
mercurial barometera type of barometer
standard atmospheric pressurea reafign of 760 mm on the barometer
millibarsofficial weather maps use another measurement of air pressure
aneriod barometertype of barometer most commonly used today does not contain mercury
altimeteraneroid brometer can also measure altitude above sea level, when used for this pupose
troposphereatmospheric layer closest to the earths surface
tropopauseupper boundary of the troposphere
stratospherelayer of the stmosphere, almost all of ozone in atmosphere is concentrated in it
stratopausehigh temperature zone
smogair pollution formed from a mixture of dust and chemicals
mesospherecoldest layer of the atmospjere that extends upward to an altitude of about 80 km
mesopauseupper boundary of the mesosphere marked by an increase in temperature
thermospherethe atmospheric layer above the meopause, the temperature increases steadily with altitude
ionospherethe region of the thermosphere thta is at 80-550 km
exospherelayer of atmosphere that merges with interplanetary space (above the ionosphere)
air pollutantany substance in the atmosphere that is harmful to people, animals, or property
temperature inversionatmospheric condition in which warm air traps colder air
weathergeneral condition of the atmosphere at a particular time and place; includes temperature, air movements, and moisture
climategeneral weather conditions over many years
temperaturemeasurement of atomic movement
order of electromagnetic spectrumlongest to shortest: infared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays
visible lightonly light humans can see
radiationall the energy that the earth recieves from teh sun which travels through outerspace and the sun
wavelengththe distance from on wavecrest to another
infared waveslonger wave lengths which are longer than visible light
electromagnetic wavesthe waves that make up all forms of radiation
electromagnetic spectrumthe complete range of wavelengths; includes: radio/tv waves, microwaves, infared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays
scatteringwhen water droplets and dust suspended in teh atmosphere reflect and bend the rays
reflectionthe amount of energy the earth absorbs and reflects; .3
albedothe fraction of solar radiation reflected by a particular surface; albedo of moon: .07. earth: .3
greenhouse effectprocess by which the atmosphere traps infared rays over the earths surface
convectiontransfew of heat through the movement of a fluid material
conductiontype of energy transfer in which vibrating molecules pass heat along to other vibrating molecules by direct contact
coriolis effectthe motion that causes winds in the N. Hemisphere to be deflected to the right and those in the S. hemisphere to be deflected to the left
convection cellsthe air flowing from the equator completes three looping paterns of flow
trade windsthe winds in both hemispheres flowing toward the equator between 30 degrees, and 0 degrees lattitude
N.E. Tradestrade winds that flow from the norhteast
S.E. tradestrade winds that flow from the southeast
horse lattitudesa belt of high pressure in the vicinity of 30 degrees lattitudes is created bye descending air
doldrumswhere the trade winds meet at the equator
westerliesglobal winds located between 40 degrees, and 60 degres lattitude that flow from teh southwest in the northern hemisphere, and from the northwest in teh southern hemisphere
Sub-polar lowswhen warm air (low pressure) moving poleward from the subtropical high is lifted by cold polar air moving toward the equator
polar easterliessurface winds created by the polar high pressure are deflected by the coriolis effect
jet streamsbands of high-speed, high-altitude westerly winds (in the upper tropaosphere, and lower stratosphere over N, & S hemisphere
breezesgentle winds that extend over distances of 100km
sea breezewind moving from water to land (daytime) the warmer air above teh land rises, and cool air from aboe the water replace it
land breezeflows from the cooler land to the warmer water (night)
valley breeze(daylight) when warm air from the valleys move up onto the cool mountain
mountain breezecooler air that descends from the mountain peaks (night)
water vaporthe form of water in a gas
sublimationsolid changes directly to a vapor (skips liquid form)
depositionvapor becoming solid (skipping liquid)
latent heatthe energy absorbed and stored in mollecules (realeased when water melts, condenses)
humiditythe amount of water vapor in teh atmosphere
saturatredwhen air holds all water vapor it can at a fiven temperature
relative humiditya ratio that compares the mass of water vapor i the air wiht the mass of water vapor that the air can hold
psychrometeran instrument used to measure realtive humidity
radiosondea package that carries an electric hygrometer to high altitudes
specific humidityespresses the actual amount of moisture in the air
dew pintthe temperature to which air must be cooled to reach saturation
dewtype of condensation formed when air that is in contact with a cool surface looses heat until it reaches saturation
frostice crystals formed when the dew point is below 0 degress C and water vapor directly enters the solid state
condensation nucleisolid particles in the atmosphere, such as ice and dust, that probide the surfaces on which water vapor condences
convective coolingthe lowering of the temperature of a mass of air dure to its rising and expanding
adiabatic temp. changeschanges in temperature that result soley form the expansion of compression of air
condensation levelteh level of which condensation forms
advective coolingcooling produced when wind carries warm, moist air across a cold ocean or region of land
stratus cloudslowest clouds; form where a layer of warm, moist air lies above a layer of cool air
altostratusform at the middle lattitudes , thinner than lower stratusand produces little percipitation
nimbostratusdangerous clouds
cumulas cloudspuffy, shapely clouds; form when warm, moist air rises and cools, as air reaches dew point forms a cloud
dirrus cloudscomposed of ice crystals, sunight can easily pass through; curly clouds
radiation fogfog that results in a loss of radiation
advection fog (ground fog)fog that forms when warm moist air moves across a cold surface
upsloap fogformed by the lifting and adiabatic cooling of air as it rises along and slopes; cloud formation at ground level
steam fogforms over rivers and lakes, formed when cool air moves over a warm body of water, in fall only b/c water i still hot from summer, and NOT in spring b/c water is cold from winter
precitpitationany moisture that falls from the earths surface
sleetforms when rain falls through a layer of freezing air
glaze ice (freezing rain)when rain freezes when it hits a surface near the ground
haillumps of ice; forms in cumulonimbus clouds, convection currents with in the clouds carry raindrops to high levels, where they freeze
coalescenewhen a cloud droplets gets added to by other cloud droplets and gathers droplets until big enough to fall from cloud
supercoolingprocess in which water droplets are induced to remain liquid at temperatures below ) degrees C
cloud seedingthe method used to attempt to find the cause or increase of percipitation
freezing nucleiparticles that are used in the center of snowflakes and in raindrops in order to freeze
rain gaugemeasures amount of rainfall; has funnel in which water goes through


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