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The Muscular System

skeletal muscleappears striated
cardiac musclecontains intercalcated disks
smooth musclefound in walls of digestive tract/blood vessels
motion is voluntary in this muscleskeletal muscle
motion is involuntary in this musclecardiac muscle, smooth muscle
originwhere muscle attaches to stationary bone
bodymain part of the muscle
insertionwhere muscle attaches to bone that moves on contraction
tendonsconnective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
tendon sheathfluid-filled tube enclosing some tendons
bursaefluid-filled sac between tendon and bone
fibermuscle cell
sarcomerebasic unit of muscle
actinprotein making up thin filaments of sarcomere
myosinprotein making up thick filaments of sarcomere
sliding filament modeldescribes/explains muscle contraction
requirements for muscle contractionATP molecules and calcium ions
movement, posture, heat productionfunctions of muscular system
prime movermuscle mainly responsible for a given movement
synergistmuscle that helps prime mover
antagonistmuscle that opposes action of prime mover
prime mover must do this to produce motioncontract
antagonist must do this to allow motionrelax
bicepmuscle in anterior upper arm that is prime mover in flexion of lower arm
tricepmuscle in posterior upper arm that is antagonist in flexion of lower arm
fatiguecaused by repeated muscle contraction without rest
lactic acidbuilds up in muscles during rapid exercise
motor unitcombination of motor neuron and muscle fiber
motor neuronspecialized nerve cell that stimulates a muscle fiber
neuromuscular junctionpoint of contact between motor neuron and muscle fiber
threshold stimulusminimum stimulus needed to cause muscle fiber to contract
isotonic contractionmuscle shortens and produces movement
isometric contractionmuscle tenses and produces no movement
pectorals "pecs"chest muscle
latissimus dorsi "lats"back muscle
deltoids "delts"shoulder muscle
bicepsanterior upper arm muscle
tricepsposterior upper arm muscle
flexionmovement that makes joint angle smaller
extensionmovement that makes joint angle larger
supinationpalms forward

Assistant Professor
Blinn College

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