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Genetics - Chapter 7

Review of basic genetic terms

geneticsscience of biological inheritance
homozygoushaving identical alleles for a trait
heterozygoushaving two different alleles for a trait
alleleone of two or more alternate forms of a gene
genotypedescribes the genes of an organism
phenotypedescribes the appearance of a trait
dominantallele that can cover up a recessive allele
probabilitychance of an event happening
mutationgenetic change in the DNA
genetic disorderharmful mutation produced by a gene or chromosome
sex linked inheritancegenes carried on the sex chromosomes
pedigreerecord that show the inheritance a trait in a family
Punnett squarea way to predict the different type of offspring in a cross
Law of Segregationwhen alleles separate during meiosis
Law of Independent Assortmentthe law that states that different traits do not affect the inheritance of other traits
hereditypassing of traits from one generation to the next
monohybrid crosscross between two organisms that involve observing the inheritance of one trait
dihybrid crosscross between two individuals that involve observing the inheritance of two traits
Mendelfather of modern genetics
nondisjunctionwhen two chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis
monosomymissing one chromosome in a pair
trisomyhaving an extra chromosome in a pair (3)
deletion mutationpiece of a chromosome is missing
translocationa piece of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome
cystic fibrosisgenetic disorder involving a gene mutation of the sodium channel protein
sickle cell anemiagene mutation involving hemoglobin in red blood cell
incomplete dominancewhen two different alleles together produce an intermediate (blended) phenotype
co-dominanceboth genes in a heterozygote are expressed
polygenic inheritancewhen more than one set of alleles control a trait
pedigreea record of inheritance patterns through several generations

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