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World History Ch 12 and 13

the high middle ages

agricultural advances will ___ population.increase
agricultural advances will open up the road to new routes
what are the agricultural advances?better yokes, better plows, horseshoe, wind and water mill, 3 field system
guildsa trade union
chartersgiven to cities -- allows them to govern themselves
rise of the middle class also called.....Bourgeoise
what is the rise of the middle class?the middle class gets wealthier and want a part of the political action
What did Alfred the Great's scolars write?the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles
William the Conquerer comes from where?France
Where does William the Conquerer conquer?England
What battle does William the Conquerer win?The Battle of Hastings
Domesday Booka census for tax purposes -- William the Conquerer ruled
Who will create a true English society?William the Conquerer
Through what did William the Conquerer establish personal control over 1/6 of England?land ownership
Common Lawlaw based on the desicions of judges rather than a written code of laws
What will Henry II expand,why?the legal system to include a right to trial by jury
What are the two types of juries?grand jury and trial jury
what's the difference between a grand and trial jury?grand jury decides if you go to trial
Magna Carta (1215)begining of move towards democracy
what are some things the magna carta offered?taxation only with representation, right to trial, and it limited the power of King John
What did the parliament of England do?limited monarchy -- will attemp to for the next 500 years
what are the two houses of monarchy?ouse of lords and house of commons
What did the Capetian Kings(France) establish?the idea of absolutism
Pope Gregory VII vs Henry IVlay investiture (who is gona have power to appoint church leaders?) Concordat of Worms (1122)-- Aggreement that Pope is supreme
Chruch ProblemsHersery, Simony, and Worldliness
Heresyto speak out against the church
Simonyallowing you to buy church positions
Worldlinessthe church was more concerned with owning things than saving your soul
Church SolutionsExcommunication and Inquisitions
Excommunicationgetting thrown out of the church
Inquisitionsput you through a church court and punish you in some way
how is the Church Challenged?Waldenses and Albigensians
Waldensesthey preached the Gospel in native tongue not latin and also commended worldliness
Albigensianstaught that physical and material pleasures were evil-- they did not believe that Jesus could have taken on a human form
FriarsMonks not living in monasteries -- will form 2 religious orders
what are the two religious orders the friars will form?Dominican Order (1170) and Francisicans (1182)
Reasons to go on a Crusadeto recapture the holy land from the moslems, to heal the schismof 1054, because all forms of sin would be forgiven, an indulgence was granted if you were killed, all debts cancelled, merchants saw a chance to gain wealth, and for a sense of adventure
what was the schism of 1054 between?Eastern Orthadox and Roman Catholic church
How many crusades were there?11
What years were the series of crusades taking place?1069-1291
What were the MILITARY results of the crusades?Europe learned about the crossbow, catapults, carrier pigeons, and gunpowder
What were the ECONOMIC results of the crusades?Rise of Italian city states like Venice and Genoa -- Hanseatic League formed in Northern Europe -- New products are introduced like rice, sugar, lemons, melons, and the use of cotton
What were the POLITICAL results of the crusades?power and prestige of papacy will increase and first but will later decline because the crusades allowed powerful monarchs to gain control over several fiefs becasue those kings were off fighting in the crusades
what were the SOCIAL results of the crusades?Intellectual stimulation which will contribute to the start of Renaissance
what lead to the developement of universities?an increase in prosperity and growth of towns
Universitiesorganized like guilds -- relied on aristotle's ideas about the universe
Where were the universities located?Oxford, Paris, Bologna
The Curriculum (7 liberal arts)grammar, rhetoric, logic, mathematics, geometry, astronomy, and music
The Queen of the SciencesTheology -- art and literature was motivated by religious beliefs
Scholasticismit was felt that reason would support Christian teachings and that you could blend reason with faith
What did Thomas Aquinas say?he said that when a conflict arises faith is more important than reason
scientific thinkersthey felt that the universe and the earth were created by god -- the earth was for the exclusive use of man so that he may understand god's creation
Albertus Magnius (Albert the Great)known as the greatest naturalist of the times
Roger Baconfranciscan monk who studied muslim writings on the properties of light and sight-- he was the first to say that science can be used to change the lives of humans
Minstrelsprofessional entertainers
troubadourspoets and musicians that wrote about courtly love
Romanesque Architecturerounded arches forming a vault like apperance, massive walls, and small windows to support the weight of the roof
gothic architecturehigher, graceful, pointed arches, large stained glass windows
Black Death (1331)the bubonic plague -- a disease carried by fleas on rats -- it will enter Europe and kill 1/3 to 1/2 of the population
peasant rebellionsthe "Jacquiere" 1358 -- name given to these rebellions
John Ball and Wat Tylerenglish peasants that revolted against higher taxes -- wanted a more egalitarian social system (more equality)
Hundred Years War lasted ___ years.116
What was the cause of the 100 years War?Edward III wanted to claim french land (Normandy) for England
What new weapon will the english use in the 100 years war?longbow
Joan of Arc (1430)a french peasant girl that will inspire french nationalism -- she will be captured by the british and burned at the stake
What is the result of the 100 years war?france will win and this will establish the power of the french monarchy -- the monarchy will be absolute
War of the roses (1455-1485)english royal family the plantagenets were split into 2 waring factions
What were the 2 waring factions of the Plantegentes?the house of york (white rose) and the house of lancaster (red rose)
Who became king during the war of the roses?Henry Tudor VII
Who did King Henry Tudor VII marry?Queen Elizabeth of York -- thus establishing the Tudor line in England until 1603
settlements of new lands brought decline of ____. why?serfdom -- when the lords moved in order to take the serfs w/ them they offered more freedom and the serfs paid rent and didn't work for the lord anymore
When the Italians defeated the muslim pirates what happened?trade with the Byzantine empire was increased
moneychangersexchanged coins from one region to the coins of another
pillorywooden boards where a person's head and hands were clamped
How long did an Apprenticeship usually last?2 to 7 years
journeymanday laborer who worked for a master
put master, apprentice, and journeyman in chronilogical orderapprentice, journeyman, master
In Paris and London what did Women dominate?silkmaking industry
"City air makes a man free"serfs fled from manors to a crowded town

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