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history-western civilizations

High Middle Ages

High Middle Ages1000-1300 A.D.
technologyhorses, windmills, crops
population increaseland clearing,free serfs, migration to E. Europe
agricultural revolution1000
Where trade emergedItaly , Flanders
charterfree from lord
PatriciansPopolo Grosso (wealthy)
first universitiesBologna, Paris, Oxford
universitasgroup for self- protection
university charter1231
Thomas Aquinasreason & faith
probs. 14th and 15 centuriesoverpop, plague, famine, war
100 yrs warengland vs. france
Jacqueseriefrench normal class- rebelled
CiompiItalian workers- held Florence 6 weeks
king of England (1272-1314)Edward I
Philip the "Fair"King of France (1285-1314)
pope who left RomeBonifice VIII
letter forbade taxing clergyClericis Laicos
where popes went instead of RomeAvignon
conciliarismrule by consuls
group who elected 3rd pope during Gt. SchismCouncil of Pisa
group who made 2 rival popes resignCouncil of Constance
1st pope to return to RomeGregory XI
Castiglionewrote Courtier
teacher of new educationHumanista
Martin Luther (1483-1546)reformer/ wrote 95 Theses
John Tetzelpardoner
Albert of HohenzollernArchbishop of Mainz/ very in debt
Most important church spot in GermanyArchbishop of Mainz
Sola Fidessalvation by faith alone
Sola Scrioturascripture alone
Invented printing press (1465)Gutenberg
Calvinreformer (predestination and eucharist symbolic
Anabaptistswanted to separate church and state, polygamy, pacifism
Menno SimonsMennonites
Jacob HutterHutterites
Peace @ Augsberg (1555)tolerate all other religions

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