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Molecular Biology DNA Protein Synthesis

Reviews Chapters 8 and 9

Proteins are made up of Amino acids
RNA stands for Ribonucleic acid
DNA polymeraseProduced a new DNA Strand from a DNA Template.
DNA polymeraseProof reads DNA and corrects errors in DNA synthesis
TranscriptionMaking RNA from DNA
PromoterPlace where Protein synthesis starts
Stop CodonWhere protein syntheis stops No tRNA available.
What is RNA processing ?When introms are removed and the exons spliced together to make mRNA ready for the ribosome.
What did Griffith discover ?Transformation while trying to make a vaccine for pneumonia
What did Hershey and Chase discover.Showed that DNA was in bacteriophage that transformed bacteria.
What are the Pyrimidines in DNA They have the Y's Thymine and cytosine
Name the Guanines in DNAAdenine and Guanine
How many rings are in Purines Double ring
Howm many rings in Pyrimidines A single ring
What did Watson Crick discoverDNA structure was a double helix
What holds double helix together ? Base pairing by hydrogen bonds
Who discovered base pairing rule ?Chargaff
What does base pairing mean ?Number of A=T and number of C=G
What did Franklin and Wilkins do ?Made X-ray diffraction pictures of DNA
Helicase does what ?Unwinds DNA durin DNA replication
Replication means making and exact copy of DNA
Place where DNA unwinds Replication fork
What is the unique base in RNAThere is Uracil in place of thymine
Every protein startes with the amino acid Methionine
Translation Converting mRNA to protein
Where does translation take place ?Ribosome in cytoplasm rough endoplasmic reticulum
The lower portion of the tRNA that ninds to m RNA Is called the anticodon
Why does protein synthesis stop ?No tRNA for stop codon.
What does tRNA do ?Converts mRNA to protein Carries the aminoacids to place on the ribosome.
What does mRNA do ? Carries the genetic information from DNA to place where proteins are made
Whate dos ribosismal RNA do ?Has a structural role to keep the ribosome together to allow the other RNA's to work .
What is a Codon ?Three nucelotides in mRNA that are specific for an amino acid.
What is a frame-shift mutation? When there is a change in the reading of the codons so that a completely different sequence is read.
What is more severe the addition or substitution of a single nucleotide ?The addition or deletion of a single base will shift reading frame and is worse thatn an substitution.
Is RNA a single or double strands ?RNA single ; DNA is double stranded
What did Oswald Avery show ? Used enzymes to show transformation was caused by DNA and not proteins.
How does a Chromosome differ from a geneA chromosome has many different genes
Genes are DNA sequences that code for a protein
All human hereditary traits are produced by Genes
Dna is made up of Nuceotides
Name the 3 parts of a nucleotidephosphate , sugar(deoxyribose) and a Nitrogenbase
What does complimentary mean for DNAA binds T and C binds G
ATTCCGGAT is complimentary to TCCGGCCTC
another name for introns intervening sequences DO NOT CODE for Ptroteins
ExonsPart of mRNA that codes gor proteins
MutagensChemical or things in the environmaent that change the DNA
Cancer Disease caused by abnormal cell growth
Tumor A mass of cancer cells
point mutationa single base change in DNA sequence

Dr. Greenberg

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