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E. Sci. 10 week test Ch. 1-5 -Mrs. M.

Based on chapters 1-5

geologystudy of the origin, history & structure of the solid earth
oceanographystudy of the earth's oceans
meteorologystudy of the earth's atmosphere and storms
astronomystudy of the universe beyond the earth
hypothesisa possible explanation or solution to the problem
How do you test a hypothesisby experimentation
controlled experimentan experiment set up to test a variable
scientific theoryonce a hypothesis has been tested and generally accepted, it may lead to a theory
Doppler Effectthe apparent change in the wavelengths of a moving energy source
ecologythe study of the complex relationships between living things and their environment
an example of a nonbiodegradable waste product isa plastic milk jug
First step in scientific problem solvingstate the problem
hypothesispossible explanation for a scientific problem
scientific lawa satement that consistently and ocrrectly describes some natural phenomenon
Big bang theorystates that galaxies in the universe are moving away from one another
Evidence of big bang theory includesred shift in the spectra of galaxies
observationusing the senses of sight, touch, taste, hearing, and smell to gather information ather
inferencestatement or information that is not directly related to one of the 5 senses
qualitativedoes not involve numbers
quantitativeusing numbers in an observation or measurement
oblate spheroidterm best describes the general shape of the earth
atmospherea blanket of gases surrounding the earth
hydrosphereall earth's water
lithospherethin outer shell of the earth consisting of the crust & the rigid upper mantle
Three major zones of the earthcrust, mantle, core
Primary of P wavestravel thru liquids, solids and gases - travel faster
Secondary or S wavestravel thru solids only
Mohothe boundary between the earth's crust and mantle, the Mohorovicic discontinuity
What causes the earth's magnetic fieldthe liquid iron in the earth's core and the motion within it
Massthe amount of matter in an object
Weightthe force of gravity on that matter
rotation of the earththe spinning of the earth on its axis.
revolution of the earththe movement of the earth around the sun
Perihelionearth is at the closest point to the sun
Aphelionearth is at the farthest point from the sun
Solstice"sun stop" the sun's rays strike th earth at a 90 degree angle
Equinox"equal night" - sun's rays strike th earth at a 90 degree angle
solar timenoon is when the sun is highest in the sky
standard timenoon is when the sun is highest over that zone
How many time zones are there?24
How wide are time zones15 degrees
satelliteany object in orbit around another body with a larger mass
polar orbitin orbit over the earth's North & South poles
geosynchronous orbitin orbit directly above the earth's equator
Perigeethe point closest to the earth in the orbit
Apogeethe point farthest from the earth in the orbit
GPSGlobal Positioning System
Global Positioning Systema network of satellites used for accurate navigation of ships and aircraft
mantlethe zone that makes up nearly two-thirds of the earth's mass
Mohothe boundary between the earth's crust and mantle
solidsBoth P waves and S waves can travel through this
coreThe possible source of the earth's magnetism is the earth's
massthe amount of matter in an object is the object's
As the distance from the center of the earth increases, the force of gravitydecreases
earth's shapeThe measured weight of an object is slightly less at the equator than it is at the poles because of the
perihelionthe point closest to the sun in the earth's orbit is called
Tropic of CapricornAt noon on the winter solstice, the sun's vertical rays strike the earth along the
At noon on the vernal equinox, the sun's vertical rays strike the earth along theequator
summerWhen the sun's rays reach their highest angle in the Northern Hemisphere, the season there is
precessionThe wobbling motion made by the earth's axis as it turns in space is called
24 hoursA person crossing the International Date Line gains or loses
equatorA satellite in geosynchronous orbit is always directly above the
earth's surfaceLandsat provides information about the
What happens as you go deeper into the eath's interiorthe pressure increases
relief globescale model of the earth
Latitude lineslines that are circles that run east & west around the world parallel to the equator
longituderun north and south but give us East to West readings
magnetic declinationthe angle between the direction of the geographic pole and the direction in which the compass needle points
cartographyscience of map making
map legenda list of the symbols and their meanings
scale of mapindicates the relationship between distrance as shown on the map and actual distance
contour linesshow elevation on a topographic map
Indexed contourevery 5th contour line (in bold)
Hachured contourdepressed contour - shows a depression on the surface
reliefhighs and lows on a map
one method to determine the direction a stream is flowing on a topographic mapflows from high elevation to low elevation
another method for direction of stream flowcontour lines point upward & the stream flows opposite
equatora point whose latitude is 0 degrees is located on the grees is loc
one degree of latitude equals1/360 the dearth's circumference
prime meridiana point whose longitude is zero degrees is located on the
A point halfway between the equator and teh South Pole has a latitude of45 degrees south
longitudethe distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian is
The needle of a magnetic compass points twoard thegeomagnetic pole
On a mercator projection, distortion is greatest near thepoles
scalethe relationship between distance on a map and actual distance on the earth is called the
contour lineson a topographic map, elevation is shown by means of
steep slopeclosely spaced contour lines indicate a
elevationheight above sea level
contour intervaldifference in elevation between one contour line and the next is called
continental drifthypothesis which stated the continents had moved
Mid-Atlantic Ridgean undersea mountain range with a steep, narrow valley running down its center
divergent boundarytwo plates moving away from each other
convergent boundarycollision of one plate with another
subduction zonea deep ocean trench general forms
transform fault boundaryforms where two plates are grinding past each other
convectionmovement of lithospheric plates is due to
convection currentthe cycle of warm water rising and cool water sinking to replace it
PangaeaThe German scientist Alfred Wegener proposed the existence of a huge landmass called
climatic patternssupport for Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift includes evidence of changes
seafloor spreadingnew ocena floor is constantly being produced through the process known as
mid-ocean ridgean underwater mountain chain formed with molten rock from seafloor spreading is called a
tectonics comes from a Greek word meaningconstruction
asthenspherelayer of mantle with plastic rock that underlies and moves the plates is called
divergent boundarytwo plates moving away from each other forms
convergent boundarythe collision of one lithospheric plate with another
subduction zonethe region along lithospheric plate boundaries where one plate moved beneath another is called
less dense and risesconvection occurs because heated material becomes
terranesgeologists think that portions of the continents are made up of formerly separate pieces of lithosphere called

O'Rourke Middle School
Burnt Hills, NY

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