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poli sci test

AB
block grantsfederal grants that permit state and local officials to decide how the money will be spent within a general area
categorical grantsgrants to state and localities that can be used only for designated projects
commerce clausethe clause that empower the federal government to regulate commerce among the states and with other nations
confederacya govermental system in which soveriegnty is vested in state goverenments
cooperative federalismthe situation in which the national , state, and local levels work together to solve problems
devolutionthe passing down of authority from national to state to local
dual federalisma doctorine based on the idea that a precise seperation of national power and state power is both possible and desirable
enumerated powers (expressed)powers granted to the national government under the Article 1 .
federalisma governmental system in which authority is divided between two soverign levels of government : state and national
fiscal federalisma term that refers to the expenditure of federal funds on porgrams run in part through state and local
grants-in-aidfederal cash payments to states and localities for programs they administer
implied powersthe federal governments constitutional authority to take action that is not expressly authorized by the Constitution but that supports the actions that are so authorized
"necessary and proper" clause (elastic)make laws that are necessary and proper
reserved powersthe powers granted to the states under the 10th ammendment
sovereigntythe ultimate authority to govern within a certain geographical area
supremacy clausemakes national laws supreme over state law when the national government is avting within its consitutional limits
unitary systema governmental system in which tha national government alone has soveriegn (ultimate) authority
age-cohort tendancywhen a signifigant break in the pattern of political socialization to occur among younger citizens
agents of socializationthose agents such as family and the media that have signifigant impact on citizens political socialization
conservativesthose who believe in using the marketplace for distributing economc benfits but look to governments to uphold social values
ideologya consistent pattern of opinion on particular issues that stem from a core belief or set of beliefs
liberalsthose who favor activist government as an istrment of ecnomix security and redistribution but reject the notion that government should favor a particular set of social values
libertariansthose who oppose government as an instrument of traditional values and of economic security
party identificationsthe personal sense of loyalty that an individual may feel toward a particular political party
political socializationthe learning process by which people accuire their political opinions, beleifs , and values
populationin a public opinion poll, the people whose opinions are being estimated through interviews witha sample of these people
populiststhose who favor activist government as a means of promoting both economic security and traditional values
primacy tendacythe tendency for early learning to become deeply embedded in one;s mind
public opinionthose opinions held by ordinary citzens that they express openly
probabilty samplea sample for a poll in which each individual in a population has a known probablitity of being selected ramdomly for inclusion in the sample
public opinionthose opinions held by ordinary citizens that they express openly
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samplein a public opinion poll the relativaly small number of individuals interviewed for the purpose if estimating the opinions of an entire population
sampling errora measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll . mainly a function of sample size and is usually expressed in percentage terms
structuring tendencythe tendency of earlier political learning to structure later learning
alienationa feeling of personal powerlessness that includes the notion that government does not care about opinions of people like one's self
apathy a feeling of personal noninterst or unconcern with polotics
civic dutythe belief of an individual that civic and political participation is a responsibility or citizenship
political participationthe sharing of ideals with a group such as a political party
prospective votinga form of electoral judgment in which voters choose the candidate whose policy promises most closely maych their own prefernces
registrationthe practice of placing one's name on an official list of voters
retrospective votingvoting with the incumbant candidate or party when they feel as though that party has served them well
social capitalthe sum of face to face interactions among citizens
social movementsactive and sustained efforts to achieve social and political change by groups of people who feel that government has not been properly responsive to their concerns
sufferagethe right to vote
voter turnoutthe proportion of persons of voting age that actually votes in a given election
air warsa term that refers to the the fact that modern campains are often a battle of opposing televised adverstising campains
candidate-centered politicselection campains and other political processes in which candidate not political parties have the most intiniative and influence
dealignmenta situation in which voters' partisan loyalties have been substantually and permanatly weakened
grass-roots partya politcal party organized at the level of the voters and dependant on their support for its strength
hard moneycampain finds given directly to cnadidates to spend as they choose
hired gunsthe professional consultants who run campains for high office
money chasea term used to describe the fact that US campains are very expensive and that candidates must spend a great amount of time raising finds in order to compete successfully
multiparty systema system in which three or more political parites have the capacity to gain control of government seperately
nominationthe designation of a particular individual to run as a politcal party's candidate in the general election
packaging (of candidates)a term of modern campaining that refers to the process of recasting a into an appealing image
party-centered politicselection campains and other political processes in which political parties not individuals hold most of the initiative and influence
party coalitionthe groups and inerests that support a political party
party competitiona process in which conflict over societys goals is transformed by political parties into electoral competition in which the winner gains the power to govern
party organizationsthe party organizational units at natinal , stae, and local levels
party realignmenta election in which the electorate responds strongly to an extraordinarily
political partya ongoing coalition of interests joined together to try to get their candidates for publlic office elected under a common label
primary election (direct primary)an election where you choose the nominee of for a certain
proprotional representationa form of representation in which seasts in the legislature are allocated proportionally according to each political parties share of the popular vote
service relationshipthe situation where party organizations assist candidates for office but have no power to require them to accept or campain on the party;s main policy postitions
single-member districtsthe form of representation in which only the candidate who gets the most votes in a district wins office
soft money campain contributions that are not subject to legal limits and are given to parties rather than directly to candidates
split ticket votingthe pattern of voting in which the individual voter in a given election casts a ballot for one or more candiadates of each of the major parties
straight ticket votingthe pattern of voting in which the individual voter supports only candidates from one party
two-party systema system in which only two political parties have a real chance of acquiring control of the government
citizens' (noneconomic) groupsorganized interests formed by indivduals drawn together by opportunities to promote a cause in which they believe but that does not provide them signifigant individual economic benefits
collective (public) goodsbenefits that are offered by groups as an incentive for membership but that are non-divisable and therefore are avialable to nonmembers as well as members of a particular group
economic groupsinterest groups that are organized primarily for economic reasons but that engage in political activity in order to seek favorable policies from government
free-rider problemthe situation in which the benefits offereed by a group to its memebers are also available to nonmembers
grass-roots lobbyinga form of lobbying designed to persuade officials that a group's policy position had string constituent support
inside lobbyingdirect communication between organized interests and policymakers which is based in the assumed value of close inside contacts with policymakers
interest groupa set of individuals who are organized to promote a shared political interest
interest-group liberalismthe tendancy of public officials to support policy demands of self-interested groups
iron triangle a small and informal but relativaly stable group of well-positioned legislators , executives, and lobbyist who seek to promote policies beneficial to a particular network
issue networka informal network of public officials and loddyist who have a common interest and expertise in a given area and who are brought together temporarily by a proposed policy in that area
lobbyingthe process by whcihc interest group members or lobbyist attempt to influence public policy through contacts with public officials
material incentivean economic or other tangible benefit that is used to attract group memebers
outside lobbyinga form of lobbying in whcih an interest group seeks to use public pressure as a ameans of influencing officials
political action committee (PAC)the organization through which an interest group raises and distributes finds for election puposes
private (individual) goodsbenfots that a group can grant directly and exclusivly to the individual members of congress
purposive incentivean incentive to group participation based on the cause that the group seeks to promote
single-issue politicsthe situation in which seperate groups are organized around nearly every concievable policy issue and press their demands and influence to the utmost
agenda settingthe power of the media through news coverage to focus the publics attention and concern on certain events
common-carrier rolethe media's function as an open channel through which political leaders can communitcate with the public
descriptive (style of) reportingthe style of reporting that aims to describe what is taking place or has occcurred
interpretive (style of) reportingthe style of reporting that aims to explain why somthing is taking place or has occurred
newsthe news media's version of reality, usually with an emphasis on timely , dramatic, and compelling events and developments
objective journalisma model of news reporting that is based on the commuication of facts rather than opinions that is fair in that it presents all sdies of partisan debate
partisan pressnewspaper and other communication mediea that openly support a political party and whose news signifigantly follows party lines
pressTHOSE PRINT AND BROADCAST ORGANIZATIONS THAT ARE IN THE NEWS-REPORTING BUSINESS
public representativea role whereby the media attempt tp act as the publics representative
signaler rolethe accepted respnsibilty of the media to alert the public to important developments as soon as possible after they happen or are discovered
watchdog rolethe acccepted responsibility of the media to protec tthe public from deceitful , careless, incompetent , and corrupt officials by standing ready to expose any official who viollates accpted legal , ethical or performance standards


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