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biology chap 4 vocab 1

organelles and whatnot

cellsmallest unit that retains props of life
plasma membranethin, outermost membrane maintains the cell as a distinct entity
cytoplasmcontains everything between the plasma membrane and region of dna
ribosomesstructures where proteins r built
eukaryotic cellhas a nucleus
prokaryotic cellno nucleus
lipid bilayerstructural basis of cell membranes
fluid mosaic modelIdea that cell membranes consist of a lipid bilayer and proteins
surface-to-volume ratioif a growin cell were to expand in diameter, its volume of cytoplasm would increase faster than the surface area of the plasma membrane required to service it
organellean internal, membrane bound sac or compartment that serves 1+functions in eukariotic cells
nucleusprotects and hosues dna
nuclear envelopepore-riddled double-membrane system that selectively controls the passage of various substances into and out of the nucleus
nucleolusdense cluster of RNA and proteins that will be assembled into subunits of ribosomes
chromatintotal collection of all DNA molecules and their associated proteins in the nucles
chromosome1 dna molecule and many proteins that are intimately associated w/ it
cytomembrane systemseries of organelles in which lipids are assembled and new polypeptde chains are modified into final proteins:includes ER, GB's and various vessicles
ERorganelle that starts at nucleus and curves through cytoplasm
golgi bodiesorganelle of lipid assembly, poplypeptide chain modification, and packaging of both in vesicles 4 export or 4 transport to locations in cytoplasm or for export
vesiclessmall membrane-bound sacs in the cytoplasm that functions in the transport, storage, or digestion of food
mitochondrionforms ATP molecules when organic compounds r completely broken down to carbon dioxide and H2O
chloroplastsconvert sunlight energy into the chemical energy of ATP
central vacuolefluid-fillled organelle in plant cells, stores amino acids, sugars, ions, and toxic wastes
cytoskeletonsystem of interconnected fibers, threads, and lattices int he fluid part of the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
microtubulescylindrical, hollow cytoskeletal element that consists of tubulin subunits
microfilamentscytoskeletal element consisting of 2 thin, twisted polypeptide chains
intermediate filamentsone of the ropelike cytoskeletal element that impart mechanical streght to animal cells and tissues
pseudopodstemporary, lobelike protrusions from the body
flagellummotile structures of many free-living cell
ciliumshort motile or sensory structure projecting from surface of certain eukaryotic cells
centriolesa barrel-shaped structure that is a type of microtubule-producing center
basal bodycentriole that remains a the base of the completed "9+2" array
cell walla structural component that wraps continuously around the plasma membrane
primary walla thin wall that allows new cells to divide or change during growth and developement
secondary wallwall on inner surface of primary wall of an older plant cell that stopped growin but needs structural support
nucleoidirregularly shaped region of DNA in Prokaryotes
cell theory1~all organisms consist of 1+ cells 2~cell is the smallest unit w/ capacity 4 independant life 3~all cells arise from preexisting cells
micrographphotograph of an image that came into view with the aid of a microscope
wavelengthwavelike form of energy in motion

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