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psychology

From chapter 4 in Mind, Brain, and Culture. by Drew Westen.

AB
Schemasorganizes information and guides the acquisition of new information.
Perceptual Constancythe organization of changing ssensations into percepts that are relatively stable in size, shape, and color.
Depth Perceptionthe organization of perception in 3 dimensions.
Form Perceptionrefers to the organization of sensations into meaningful shapes and patterns.
3 Senses of Touchpressure, temperature, and pain.
Gustationtaste
Olfactionsmell
Frequency Theorythe basilar membranes rate of vibration reflects the frequency with which a sound wave cycles.
Place Theorydifferent areas of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies; correct for high frequencies.
Amplituderefers to the height and depth of the wave and corresponds to the property of loudness.
Frequencynumber of cycles per second; corresponds to pitch.
Opponent-Process Theorythe existence of pairs of opposity primary colors linked in three systems: a blue-yellow system, a red-green system, and a black-white system.
Young-Helmholtz / Trichromatic Theorythe eye contains three types of receptors, sensitive to red, green, or blue.
Foveathe region of the retina where light is most directly focused by the lens.
Conesespecially sensitive to particular wavelengths, producing experience of color: concentrated at the fovea.
Rodssensitive to light, allowing vision in dim light.
Sensory Adaptationthe tendency of sensory systems to respond less to stimuli that continue without change.
Steven's Power Lawsubjective intensity grows as a proportion of the actual intensity raised to some power.
Fechner's Lawthe subjective magnitude of a stimulus grows as a proportion of the logarithm of the objective magnitude.
Weber's Lawregardless of the magnitude of two stimuli, the second must differ by a constant proportion from the first for it to be perceived as different.
Difference Thresholdthe lowest level of stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occured: jnd.
Response Biashow readily the person reports detecting a stimulus when uncertain.
Signal Detection Theoryargues that the ability to detect a stimulus depends not only on characteristics of the stimulus, but also on characteristics of the observer.
Absolute Thresholdthe minimum amount of physical energy needed for an observer to percieve a stimulus.
Transductionthe act of receptors responding to environmental stimulli and typically generate action potentials in adjacent sensory neurons.
Sensationthe process by which sense organs gather information about the environment.
Perceptionthe process by which the brain selects, organizes, and interperets sensations.


colleen sanford

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