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ACID BASE STATUSES

AB
Metabolic Acidosis(1) results from cold stress
Respiratory Alkalosis(1) results from excessive CO2 blown off
Body decr carbonic acid(1) results in slow respirations so that CO2 is retained
Acidosis(1) symptoms (a) CNS depression (b) errors in judgment (c) disorientation (d) drowsiness (e) stupor (f) coma
Hydrogen Ions excess(1) results in acidosis as pH falls below 7.35 (2) hydrogen ions are forced into the cells causing K+ to move into the cells
Diabetic Ketoacidosismetabolic acidosis
Metabolic Acidosisdehydration after an extended bout of diarrhea
COPDrespiratory acidosis
Diarrhea(1) respirtory acidosis
Anxiety(1)results in respiratory alkalosis (2) associated w/hyperventilation (2) during hyperventilation CO2 is blown off which lowers the amount of acid in the system
Severe AsthmaRespiratory Alkalosis
Acute Renal Failure(1) metabolic acidosis (2) hypermagnesemia (3) hyperkalemia (4) hypocalcemia
Diarrhea(1) metabolic acidosis (2) leads to meta acid because there is an over-elimination of bicarbonate
Alkalosis(1) signs (a) tingling fingers, toes & face (b) estreme nervousness (c) twitching of muscles (d) tetany
Severe Asthmarespiratory acidosis
Vomiting(1) metabolic alkalosis (2) leads to metabolic alkalosis as hydrochloric acid is lost from the stomach
Aspirinmetabolic acidosis
Overdose of Morphinerespiratory acisosis
Vigorous Diuresismetabolic alkalosis
End Stage Muscular Distrophyrespiratory acidosis
Severe Hypokalemiametabolic alkalosis
Renal Failure(1) results in metabolic acisosis as fluid build up turns acidic
Shock(1) metabolic acidosis (2) meta acid because acid is added to the system (3) anaerobic metabolic pathways result in lactate and hydrogen irons (forming lactic acid)
Hyperventilation(1) respiratory alkalosis (2) leads to res alk because the lungs are not able to eliminate carbon dioxide (3) retained carbon dioxide leads to increased acid
pneumoniarespiratory acidosis
ingestion of Bicarbonatemetabolic alkalosis
Gastric Suctionmetabolic alkalosis
Constipationmetabolic alkalosis
Seizure(1) metabolic acidosis (2) such activity leads to hypermetabolism which causes an overproduction of hydrogen ions (3) acidosis results
Convulsionsmetabolic acidosis
Bicarbonate (containing antacid ingestion)(1) metabolic alkalosis (2) the ingestion of bicarbonate leads to meea alk because base (bicarbonate) is added to the syste
Emphysema(1) respiratory acidosis (2) alveolar destruction associated with emphysema results in decreased gas exchange and an accumulation of carbon dioxide (3) carbon dioxide retention means more acid
Rigid High-Proteins(1) metabolic acidosis (2) such a diet leads to oxidation of fatty acids (3) more ketones will be present and acidosis will occur
Excessive Ventilation (Mechanical Ventilator)(1) metabolic alkalosis (2) increased ventilation from any cause will lower the carbon dioxide level (3) this results in less acid
Renal Failure(1) metabolic acidosis (2) leads to metabolic acidosis becausethe failing kidney is unable to secrete the hydrogen ions that are present from all of the acids that are produced daily by the body
Gastric Suction(1) metabolic alkalosis (2) removes the hydrochloric acid that is present in the stomach (3) the loss of acid leads to alkalosis
Cerebral Malaria(1) metabolic acidosis
Chrons(1) metabolic acidosis
Coma(1) metabolic acidosis
Constipation(1) metabolic alkalosis
Dehydration(1) metabolic acidosis
End Stage Muscular Distrophy(1) respiratory acidosis
Fever(1) metabolic acidosis
Hypocalcemia(1) metabolic acidosis
Ingestion of Food(1) metabolic acidosis
Ketone Bodies (Organic Acid)(1) metabolic acidosis (2) it is the by-products of this metabolic process, ketone bodies, that cause metabolic acidosis
Osteomalacia(1) metabolic acidosis
Overdose of Aspirin(1) metabolic acidosis
Pneumonia(1) respiratory acidosis
Renal Failure(1) metabolic acidosis
Stress(1) metabolic acidosis
Severe Anemia(1) metabolic acidosis
Vigorous Diuresis(1) results in metabolic alkalosis (2) cause loss of hydrogen ions (acid) leading to metabolic alkalosis
Vigorous Exercise(1) metabolic acidosis (2) respiratory acidosis
pH Blood Value Decrease(1) kidneys will compensate by excreting hydrogen ions and or conserve bicarbonate (2) acidemia results & the body will compensate by increasing breathing, expelling CO2
pCO2(1) 40 (35-45) (2) if this number is high >40, acidosis results (3) if it deviates in direction of pH, the problem is respiratory
bicarbonate (HCO3)(1) 24 (22-26) (2) if this number is <24, acidosis results (3) if deviation is in the direction of pH, the problem is metabolic
Determining pH(1) look at ph to determine if the patient is (a) normal (b) acidotic (c) alkalotic
Determining pCO2 & Bicarbonate (HCO3)(1) look to see which has the same acid-base deviation as ph (2) e.g. if pH is acidotic, look to see if (a) pCO2 is high (producing acidosis) (b) bicarbonate (HCO3) is low (which also produces acidosis) (3) this defines the primary problem (a) if pCO2 deviates in the same direction as pH, the problem is respiratory (b) if bicarbonate devistes in same direction as pH, the problem is metabolic
(HCO3) & pCO2(1) if deviation is opposite of pH, compensation occurs (2) respiratory compensation occurs if pCO2 is in opposite deviation and metabolic if the compensation occurs in the HCO3 value (3) if both parameters deviate in the direction of pH, then there is a mixed acidosis or alkalosis as both systems are contributing to the problem
Poisoningmetabolic acidosis
Acidemia (arterial pH < 7.35)(1) is an accumulation of acids in the bloodstream that may occur with severe acidosis when the acid load exceeds respiratory capacity (2) this condition can sometimes result in coma & CNS depression (3) if the pH falls below 6.80, it will lead to death
Respiratory Acidosis(1) is caused by the lungs's failure to remove excess carbon dioxide from the body, reducing the pH in the body

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