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Chapter 1 Terms

AB
Solar Capitalcapital Solar energy from the sun reaching earth
Earth CapitalThe earth's natural resources and processes that sustain us and other species
Sustainable SocietyA society that manages its economy and population size without doing irreparable environmental harm by overloading the planet's ability to absorb environmental insults, replenish its resources, and sustain human and other forms of life over a specified period, usually hundreds to thousands of years.
Linear GrowthGrowth in which a quantity increases by some fixed amount during each unit of time
Exponential GrowthGrowth in which some quantity increases by a fixed percentage of the whole in a given time as each increase is applied to the base for further growth.
Doubling TimeThe time it takes (usually in years) for the quantity of something growing exponentially to double.
Rule of 70Doubling time (in years) = 70/Percentage growth rate
Economic GrowthIncrease in the real value of all final goods and services produced by an economy; an ingrease in real GNP or GDP
ThroughputThe rate of flow of matter, energy, or information through a system
Gross National Product (GNP)Total market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced by an economy for final use usually during a year
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)Total market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced within a country for final use usually during a year
Per Capita GNPAnnual gross national product (GNP) of a country divided by its total population
Per Capita GDPAnnual gross domestic product (GDP) of a country divided by its total population
Developed CountriesA country that is highly industrialized and has a high per capita GNP
Developing CountriesA country that has low to moderate industrialization and low to moderate per capita GNP
DevelopmentChange from a society that is largely rural, agricultural, illiterate, and poor, with a rapidly growing population, to one that is mostly urban, industrial, educated, and wealthy, with a slowly growing or stationary population
ResourceAnything obtained from the living and nonliving environment to meet human needs and wants. It can also be applied to other species
Renewable ResourceA Resource that theoretically can last indefinitely without reducing the available supply, either because it is replaced more rapidly through natural processes than are nonrenewable resources or because it is essentially inexhaustible
Potentially Renewable ResourceA Resource that theoretically can last indefinitely without reducing the available supply, either because it is replaced more rapidly through natural processes than are nonrenewable resources or because it is essentially inexhaustible
BiodiversityVariety of different species (species diversity), genetic variability among individuals within each species (genetic diversity), and variety of ecosystems (ecological diversity)
Genetic DiversityGenetic variability among individuals within each species
Species DiversityVariety of different species
Ecological DiversityA variety of ecosystems
Sustainable YieldHighest rate at which a potentially renewable resource can be used without reducing its available supply throughout the world or in a particular area
Environmental DegradationDepletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as soil, grassland, forest, or wildlife by using it faster than it is naturally replenished
Common-Property ResourcesResource that people are normally free to use; each user can deplete or degrade the available supply. Most are potentially renewable and are owned by no one
Tragety of the CommonsDepletion or degrada- tion of a resource to which people have free and unmanaged access
Nonrenewable ResourcesResource that exists in a fixed amount (stock) in various places in the earth's crust and has the potential for renewal processes taking place over hundreds of millions to billions of years
MineralAny naturally occurring inorganic substance found in the earth's crust as a crystalline solid
RecyclingCollecting and reprocessing a resource so it can be made into new products
ReuseTo use a product over and over again in the same form
ReservesResources that have been identified and from which a usable mineral can be extracted profitably at present prices with current mining technology
PollutionAn undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, water, soil, or food that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms
Nonpoint SourcesLarge or dispersed land areas such as cropfields, streets, and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area
Point SourcesA single identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environment
ConcentrationAmount of a chemical in a particular volume or weight of air, water, soil, or other medium
Degradable PollutantsPotentially polluting chemical that is broken down completely or reduced to acceptable levels by natural physical, chemical, and biological processes
Biodegradable PollutantsMaterial that can be broken down into simpler substances (elements and compounds) by bacteria or other decomposers
Persistent PollutantsMaterial that is slowly broken down into simpler chemicals or reduced to acceptable levels by natural physical, chemical, and biological processes
Pollution PreventionProcess that prevents a potential pollutant from forming or entering the environment, or that sharply reduces the amounts entering the environment
Pollution CleanupProcess that removes or reduces the level of a pollutant after it has been produced or has entered the environment


Asher Roston

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