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9.1 Plant Structure and Growth Vocabulary Cards

Use these cards to review the vocabulary found in 9.1.

gymnopermshave seeds that do not develop within an enclosed structure
angiospermshave seeds that develop within a protective structure
dermal tissueouter protective covering of plant composed of epidermis and cuticle
ground tissuethin-walled cells that function in storage, photosynthesis, support and secretion. Space between epidermis and vascular tissue.
vascular tissuexylem and phloem carry out long-distance conduction of water, minerals and nutrients within the plant
meristematic tissuesimilar to stem cells, these cells divide to become part of the plant body
rootsabsorb minerals ions and water from soil, provide anchorage
root cortexinvolved in conducting water from the soil to the interior vascular tissue
xylemconducts water and dissolved minerals from roots to leaves
phloemtransport organic nutrients through the plant
nodearea where a leaf joins the stem
internodearea between two nodes, between two leaves joining the stem
cambriumarea of rapidly dividing cells that differentiate into xylem and phloem
cuticlelayer of wax that reduces water loss from the leaf and insect invasion
palisade mesophyllcells occurring in the upper portion of the leaf that contain a large number of chloroplasts
spongy mesophyllloosely packed cells with few chloroplasts in the bottom portion of the leaf
stomataopenings on the bottom of the leaf that allow gases to exchange
guard cellscontrol the opening and closing of stomata
veinscomposed of xylem and phloem and transport raw materials and products of photosynthesis throughout the leaf
taproot systemone main vertical root that develops from the embryonic root
fibrous root systemgroup of thin roots spread out in the soil without a main central root
prop rootthick adventitious roots that grow from the lower part of the stem and brace the plant (e.g. corn)
storage rootsspecialized cells within the root store large quantities of carbohydrates and water (e.g. carrots and beets)
pneumatophores (air roots)roots produced by plants that live in humid or wet places
buttress rootslarge roots that develop near the bottom of trees to provide stability (e.g. fig tree)
bulbsvertical, underground stems consisting of enlarged bases of leaves hat store food (e.g. onions)
tubershorizontally growing stems below ground that are modified as carbohydrates-storage structures (e.g. potatoes)
rhizomeshorizontal stems that grow just below the surface to allow plant spreading (e.g. ginger plant)
stolonshorizontal stems growing above ground that allow a plant to reproduce asexually (e.g. strawberry plants)
tendrilsleaf structures that coil around objects to aid in support and climbing (e.g. pea plants)
reproductive leavesleaves that produce tiny plants along the leaf margins that fall to the ground and take root in the soil (e.g. kalanchoe plants)
bracts or floral leavescoloured modified leaves that surround flowers and attract insects for pollination (poinsettia)
spinesleaf structures that reduce water loss, may be associated with modified stems that carry out photosynthesis (e.g. cacti)
indeterminate growthcontinual pattern of growth (i.e. plants continue to grow while animals stop at a certain size)
apical meristmstissue in the tips of roots and stems and causes primary growth
lateral meristemsthis meristem allows growth in thickness of plants, vascular cambrium and cork cambrium are seen in most trees and shrubs
tropismsgrowth or movement responses to directional external stimuli
phototropismgrowth of a plant toward the simuli of light
auxinsplant hormones that cause positive phototropism of plant shoots and seedlings

Zurich International School

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