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BIO EOC Vocabulary Practice

AB
Hookethe first person to identify cells and name them
LeeuwenhoekHe made better lenses and observed cells in greater detail
SchwannHe concluded that all living things were made of cels
VirchowProposed that all cells come from other cells
ElectronA microscope that can directly study indivdual protein molecules, not living organisms.
Scanning ElectronA microscope that can form a 3-D image.
Transmission ElectronA microscope that makes a 2-D image of a slice of a specimen.
DissectingA low power microscope used to enhance items that can be seen with the naked eye.
Compound LightA microscope with more than one lens that uses light to transmit images to your eye.
Cell theoryAll organisms are made of cells, all existing cells are produced by other living cells, the cell is the most basic unit of life.
TheoryA proposed explanation for a wide range of observations and experimental results that is supported by a wide range of evidence.
DependentA variable that is observed and measured during an experiment.
IndependentA variable that is manipulated, or changed, by a scientist.
Abioticnonliving factor in an ecosystem.
AcidA compound that donates a proton when dissolved in a solution. pH less than 7.
Activation EnergyEnergy input to necessary to initate a chemical reaction.
Active TransportEnergy-Requiring movement of molecules across a membrane from a region of low concentration to a region of higher concentration.
AdaptationInherited trait that is selected for over time because it allows organisms to better survive their environment.
Adenosine TriphosphateHigh-energy molecule that contains, within its bonds, energy that cells use.
AdhesionAttraction between molecules of different substances.
Aerobicprocess that requires oxygen to occur
AlleleAny of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome.
Amino Acidmolecule that makes up proteins
Amniotic sacfluid-filled organ that cushions and protects the developing embryo of some vertebrates
Anaerobicprocess that does not require oxygen to occur.
AnalogousBody part that is similar in functionas a body part of another organism but is structurally different.
AnaphaseIn mitosis where chromatids seperate and are pulled to opposite side of cell.
AntibioticChemical that kills or slows the growth of bacteria
AntibodyProtein produced by B cells that aids in the destruction of pathogens.
AnticodonSet of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complimentary mRNA codon during translation.
AntigenProtein marker that helps the immune system identify foreign particles.
BaseCompound that accepts protons, pH higher than 7
Artificial Selectionprocess by which humans modify a species by breeding it for certain traits.
Asexual Reproductionprocess by which offspring are produced from a single parent; does not involve the joining of gametes
Atombasic unit of matter
Autosomechromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
AutotrophOrganism that obtains its energy from abiotic sources, such as sunlight or inorganic chemicals
Base pairing rulesDesribes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA
B cellwhite blood cell that matures in the bone marrow and produces antibodies that fight off infection
Behavioral isolationisolation between populations due to differences in courtship or mating behavior.
Benignhaving no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous.
Binary Fissionasexual reproduction in which a cell divides into two equal parts
Binomial Nomenclaturenaming system in which each species is given a two-part scientific name.
Biodiversityvariety of life within an area
Biogeochemical cyclemovement of a chemical through the biological and geological, or living and nonliving, parts of an ecosystem
Biologyscientific study of all forms of life
Biomasstotal dry ,ass of all organisms in a given area
Biomeregional or global community of organisms characterized by the climate conditions and plant communities that thrive there
BiosphereAll organisms and the part of Earth where they exist
Bioticliving things, such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria
Blastocyststage of development during which the zygote consist of a ball of cells
Blood pressureforce with which blood pushes against the wall of an artery
Bottleneck effectgenetic drift that results from an event that drastically reduces the size of a population
Brain stemstructure that connects the brain to the spinal cord and controls breathing and heartbeat.
Cancercharacterized by uncontolled cell division
Carbohydratemolecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Carnivoreorganism that obtains energy by eating only animals
Carrierorganism whose genome contains a gene for a certain trait or disease that is not expressed in the organism's phenotype
Carrying Capacitynumber of individuals that the resources of an environment can normally and persistently support
Catalystsubstance that decreases activation energy and increases reaction rate in a chemical reaction
Cellbasic unit of life
Cell cyclepattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division that occurs in a eukaryotic cell
Cell membranedouble-layer of phospholipids that forms a boundary between a cell and the surrounding environment
Cellular respirationprocess of producing ATP by breaking down carbon-based molecules when oxygen is present
Centriolesmall cylinder-shaped organelle made of protein tubes arranged in a circle; aids mitosis
centromereregion of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosis
Cerebellumpart of the brain that coordinates and regulates all voluntary muscle movement and maintains posture and balance
Cerebrumlargest part of brain, coordinating movement, thought, reasoning, and memory
Chemical Reactionprocess by which substances change into different substances through the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
Chlorophylllight-absorbing pigment molecule in photosynthetic organisms
Chloroplastorganelle composed of numerous membranes that are used to convert solar energy into chemical energy
Chromatidone half of a duplicated chromosome
Chromatinloose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase
Chromosomelong, continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information
Cladogramdiagram that displays proposed evolutionary relationships
Codominanceheterozygous genotype that equally expresses the traits from both alleles
Codonsequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
Cohesionattraction between molecules of the same substance
Commensalismone species benefit but the other species is not affected one way or another
Communitycollection of all the different populations that live in one area
CompetitionEcological relationship in which two organisms attempt to obtain the same resource
competitive exclusiontheory that states that no two species can occupy the same niche at the same time
Compoundsubstance made of atoms of different elemetns that are bonded together
concentration gradientdifference in the concentration of a substance from one location to another
coniferoustree that retains its needles year round and reproduces with cones
constantcondition that is controlled so that it does not change during an experiment
consumerorganism that obtains its energy and nutrients by eating otehr organisms
convergent evolutionevolution toward similar characteristics in unrelated species, resulting from adaptations to similar environmental conditions
covalent bondchemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
crossing overexchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
cytokinesisprocess by which the cell cytoplasm divides
cytoplasmjellylike substance inside cells that contains molecules and in some cells organelles
decomposerdetritivore that breaks down orgnaic matter into simpler compounds, returning nutrients back into an ecosystem
density-dependent limiting factorenvironmental resistance that affects a population that has become overly crowded
density-independent limiting factorenvironmental resistance that affects a population regardless of population density
detritivoreorganism that eats dead organic matter
diffusionmovement of dissolved molecules in a fluid or gas from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
dihybrid crosscross, or mating, between organisms involving two pairs of contrasting traits
diploidcell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm
directional selectionpathway of natural selection in which one uncommon phenotype is selected over more common phenotypes
disruptive selectionpathway of natural selection in which two opposite, but equally uncommon, phenotypes are selected over the most common phenotype
divergent evolutionevolution of one or more closely related species into different species; resulting from adaptations to different environmental conditions
Deoxyribonucleic Acidmolecule that stores genetic information in all organisms
DNA polymeraseenzyme that makes bonds betweennucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication
Dominantallele that is expressed when two differnet alleles are present in an organism's genotype
Double helixmodel that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder
Ecological Nicheall of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy, and reproduce in an ecosystem
ecologystudy of the interactions among living things and their surroundings
ecosystemcollection of all organisms and non-living things, such as climate, soil, water, and rocks, in an area
ectothermorganism that regulates its body temperature by exchanging heat with its environment
eggfemale gamete
embryostage of development after the fertilized cell implants into the uterus but before the cells take on a recognizable shape
emigrationmovement of individuals out of a population
endocytosisuptake of liquids or large molecules into a cell by inward folding of the cell membrane
endoplasmic reticuluminterconnected network of thin, folded membranes that produce, process, and distribute proteins
endosymbiosisecological relationship in which one organism lives within the body of another
endothermorganism that produces its own heat through metabolic processes
energy pyramiddiagram that compares energy used by producers, primary consumers, and other trophic levels
enzymeprotein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms
equilibriumcondition in which reactants and products
eukaryotic cellcell that has a nucleus and other memrane bound organelles
evolutionchange in a species over time, process of biological change by which descendents come to differ from their ancestors
exocytosisrelease of substances out a cell by diffusion
exonsequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis
experimentprocess that tests a hypothesis by collecting information under controlled conditions
exponential growthdramatic increase in population over a short period of time
facillitated diffusiondiffusion of molecules assisted by protein channels that pierce a cell membrane
fatty acidhydrocarbon chain often bonded to glycerol in a lipid
fermentationanaerobic process by which ATP is produced by glycolysis
fetilizationfusion of an egg and sperm cell
fitnessmeasure of an organism's ability to survive and produce offspring relative to other members of a population
fluid mosaic modelmodel that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane
food chainmodel that links organisms by their feeding relationships
food webmodel that shows the complex network of feeding relationships withing an ecosystem
founder effectgenetic drift that occurs after a small number of individuals colonize a new area
frameshift mutationmutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence
gametesex cell; an egg or a sperm cell
genespecific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
gene flowphysical movement of alleles from one population to another
genetic driftchange in allele frequencies due to chance alone, occuring most commonly in small populations
geneticsstudy of the heredity patterns and variation of organisms
genomeall of an organism's genetic material
geographic isolationisolation between populations due to physical barriers
golgi apparatusstack of flat, membrane-enclosed spaces containing enzymes that process, sort, and deliver proteins
guard cellone of a pair of cells that controls the opening and the closing of a stoma in plant tissue
habitatcombined biotic and abiotic factors found in the area where an organism lives
haploidcell that has only one copy of each chromosome
herbivoreorganism that eats only plants
heterotrophorganism that obstains its energy and nutrients by consuming other organisms
heterozygouscharacteristic of having two different alleles appear at the same locus of sister chromatids
homologous chromosomeschromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ
homologous structurebody part that is similar in structure on different organisms but performs different functions
homozygouscharacteristic of having two of the same alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids
human genome projectproject whose goal is to map, sequence, and identify all of the genes in the human genome
hydrogen bondattraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom
hydrologic cyclepathway of water from the atmosphere to Earth's surface, below ground, and back
hypertonicsolution that has a higher concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
hypothesisproposed explanation or answer to a scientific question
hypotonicsolution that has a lower concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
immigrationmovement of individuals into a population
immune systembody system that fights off infections
incomplete dominanceheterozygous phenotype that is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes
indicator speciesspecies whose presence in an ecosystem gives clues about the condition of that ecosystem
intronsegment of a gene that does not code for an amino acid
ionatom that has gained or lost one or more electrons
ionic bondchemical bond formed through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions
isotonicsolution that has an equal concentration of dissolved particles compared with another solution
karyotypeimage of all of the chromosomes in a cell
keystone speciesorganism that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem
lactic acidproduct of fermentation in many types of cells
law of independent assortmentstates that alleles pairs separate from one another during gamete formation
law of segregationstates that organisms inherit two copies of genes, one from each parent, and orgnanisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes because the genes separate during gamete formation
limiting factorenvironmental factor that limits the growth and size of a population
lipidnonpolar molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
logistic growthpopulation growth that is characterized by a period of slow growt, followed by a period of exponential growth, followed by another period of almost no growth
lymphocytewhite blood cell that plays a role in an immune system
lysosomeorganelle that contains enzymes
malignantcancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health
meiosisform of nuclear divisionthat divides a diploid cell into haploid cells; important in gamete formation
memory cellspecialized white blood cell that contributes to acquired immunity by acting quickly to a foreign substance that infected the body previously
messanger RNAform of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where is serves as a template for protein synthesis
metabolismall chemical processes that synthesize or break down materials within an organism
mitochondrial DNADNA found only in mitochondria, used as a molecular clock
mitochondrionbean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA
mitosisprocess by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents
moleculetwo or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
monohybrid crosscross, or mating between organisms that involves only one pair of contrasting traits
monomermolecular subunit of a polymer
mutationchange in the DNA sequence
mutualismecological relationship between two species in which each species gets a benefit from the interaction
natural selectionmechanism by which individuals that have inhereited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring on average than do other individuals
nucleic acidpolymer of nucleotides, the genetic material of organisms
nucleotidemonomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base
nucleusorganelle composed of a double membrane that acts as the storehouse for most of a cell's DNA
omnivoreorganism that eats both plants and animals
organgroup of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions
organellemembrane-bound structure that is specialized to perform a distinct process within a cell
organismany individual living thing
organ systemtwo or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions
osmosisdiffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration
ovumegg cell that is produced by the female reproductive system
parasitismecological relationship in which one organism benefits by harming another organism
passive immunityimmunity that occurs without the body undergoing an immune response
passive transportmovement of molecules across the cell membrane without energy input from the cell
pathogenagent that causes disease
pedigreechart of phenotypes and genotypes in a family that is used to determine whether an individual is a carrier of a recessive allele
pHmeasure of acidity; related to free hydrogen ion concentration in solution
phagocytecell that destroys other cells by surrounding and engulfing them
phagocytosisuptake of a solid particle into a cell by engulfing the particle
phenotypecollection of all of an organism's physical characteristics
phloemtissue that transports sugars in vascular plants
phospholipidmolecule that forms a double-layer cell membrane
photosynthesisprocess by which light energy is converted to chemical energy; produces sugar and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water
pioneer speciesorganism that is the first to live in a previously uninhabited area
placentaorgan that develops in female mammals during pregnancy and carries nutrients from the mother to the embryo
point mutationinvolves a substitution of only one nucleotide
polygenic traittrait that is produced by two or more genes
polymerlarge, carbon-based molecule formed by monomers
polymerase chain reactionmethod for increasing the quantity of DNA by separating it into two strands and adding primers and enzymes
populationall of the individuals of a species that live in the same area
population densitymeasure of individuals living in a defined area
predationprocess by which one organism hunts and kills another organism for food
primary successionestablishment and development of an ecosystem in an area that was previously uninhabited
primershort segment of DNA that intiates replication by DNA polymerase
producerorganism that obtains its energy from abiotic sources
prokaryotic cellcell that does not have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
promotersection of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds, starting the transcription of mRNA
prophasefirst phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleous disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
proteinpolymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
protisteukaryote that is not an animal, plant, or fungus
punnett squaremodel for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross, or mating
purebredtype of organism whose ancestors are gentically uniform
recessiveallele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organism's genotype
recombinant DNAgenetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organism or species
replicationprocess by which DNA is copied
ribosomal RNARNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein
ribosomeorganelle that links amino acids together to form proteins
RNA polymeraseenzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complimentary strand of RNA from a DNA template
secondary successionreestablishment of a damaged ecosystem in an area where the soil was left intact
selective permeabilitycondition or quality of allowing some, but not all, materials to cross a barrier or membrane
sex chromosomechromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics
sex-linked genegene that is located on a sex chromosome
solutesubstance that dissolves in a solvent and is present at a lower concentration than the solvent
solutionmixture that is consistent throughout
solventsubtance in which solutes dissolve and that is present in greatest concentration in a solution
speciesgroup of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
stabilizing selectionpathway of natural selcetion in which intermediate phenotypes are selceted over phenotypes at both extremes
start codoncodon signals to ribosomes to begin translation =; codes for the first amino acid in a protein
stomatapores in the cuticle of a plant through which gas exchange occurs
stop codoncodon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation
successionsequence of biotic changes that regenerate a damaged community or start a community in a previously uninhabited area
survivorshipprobability of surviving to a particular age
survivorship curvegraph showing the surviving members of each group of a population over time
symbiosisecological relationship between members of at least two different species that live in direct contact with one another
T cellwhite blood cell that matures in the thymus and destroys infected body cells by causing them to burst
theoryproposed explanationfor a wide varietyof observationsand experimental results
tissuegroup of cells that work together to perform a similar function
traitcharacteristic that is inherited
transcriptioncopying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA
transfer RNAform of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
translationmRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
transpirationrelease of vapor through the pores of the skin or the stomata of plant tissue
tundrabiome with winters as long as 10 months
uterusorgan in female reproductive system in which egg attached and fetus develops
vaccinesubstance that stimulates an immune response producing acquired immunity without illness or infection
vegetative reproductionasexual reproduction in which a stem, leaf, or root will produce a new individual when detached from a parent plant
zygotecell that forms when a male gamete fetilizes a female gamete



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