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Chapter 2 Game

Neurona nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Dendritethe branching extensions of a neutron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
Axonthe extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages are sent to other neutrons or to muscles or glands.
Myelin sheatha layer of fatty cells segmentally encasing the fibers of many neutrons; makes possible vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses.
Action potentiala neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
Thresholdthe level of stimulation required to trigger a neuron impulse.
Synapsethe junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this juction is called the synaptic gap or cleft.
Neurotransmitterschemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by sending the neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether it will generate a neural impulse.
Acetylcholinea neurotransmitter that, among its functions, triggers muscle contraction.
Endorphins"morphine-within"-natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
Nervous systemthe body's speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
Central nervous systemthe brain and the spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous systemthe sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
Nervesneural "cables" containing many axons. These bundled axons, which are part of the peripheral nervous system, connect the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
Sensory neuronsneurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system.
Interneuronscentral nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
Motor neuronsthe neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
Skeletal nervous systemthe division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
Autonomic nervous systemthe part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Parasympathetic nervous systemthe division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
Reflexa simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
Neural networksinterconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
Endocrine Systemthe body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones
Hormoneschemical messengers manufactured by the endocrine glands
Adrenal Glandsendocrine galnds above the kidneys; they secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, which cause arousal during "fight or flight"
Pituitary Glandtriggered by the hypothalamus to release hormones that regulate growth
Lesiontissue destruction resulting from either natural or experimental causes
EEGrecording of electrical activity across the brain's surface; measured by electrodes
CT Scanx-rays taken from different angles, combined by computer to create a composite representation of a "slice" through the body
PET Scancolorfully displays where radioacitve glucose is used while the brain performs certain tasks
MRIuses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer images of soft tissue; allows us to see brain structures
Brainstemoldest and most basic part of the brain
Medullapart of the brainstem, controls heart rate and breathing
Reticular Formationin the brainstem, important in controlling arousal
Thalamus"way-station" or switchboard for the brain
Cerebellumcontrols gross motor movements and corrdination; highly convoluted "mini-brain" located beneath the cortex and at the top rear of the brainstem
Limbic Systemdoughnut shaped system on top of the brainstem, controls drives and emotions
Amygdalaalmond-shaped clusters in limbic system, aid in emotions esp. anger
Hypothalamussits below thalamus in limbic system, controls drives (motivated behaviors)
Cerebral Cortexcomplex network of cells covering the hemispheres
Glial cellssupport, protect, nourish neurons
Frontal LobeControls advanced reasoning
Parietal LobeProcess senosry information and "school stuff"
Occipital LobeReceives and processes visual information
Temporal LobeReceives and processes auditory information
Motor Cortextoward the rear of the frontal lobe, controls voluntary motor movements
Sensory Cortextoward the front of the parietal lobe, processes body sensations
Association Areasareas in cerebral cortex involved in higher level functions, such as learning, remembering, thinking, speaking
Aphasiaimpairment of language due to left hemisphere damage to Broca or Wernike's area
Broca's areain left side of frontla lobe, directs muscle movements involved in speech
Wernike's areain left temporal lobe, involved in language comprehension
Corpus callosumbundle of fibers that connects the two hemmipsheres, allows them to "talk" to each other
Split brainwhen the corups callosum is cut, usually to prevent severe epileptic seizures
Chromosomesthreadlike structures made of DNA molecules
DNAmolecule containing genetic information, make up chromosomes
Genessegment of DNA, units of heredity!
Identical twinsdevelop from a single egg
Fraternal twinsdevelop from two eggs

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