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Bus. Law. Ch. 3

Courts and the Legal System Vocabulary

BiasA prior opinion or belief, a prejudice
CourtA place provided by government where people may go to resolve legal disputes.
LitigationCivil court proceeding brought to enforce a right or seek a remedy between persons
JurisdictionThe power of the court to hear and decide a specific case
Long-arm statuteState law that authorizes a court to hear cases brought against nonresidents
Subject matter jurisdictionThe type of cases a court is authorized to hear.
General JurisdictionCourt that is authorized to hear and decide virtually any type of case.
Limited JurisdictionCourt that is limited in the types of cases it can hear and decide.
Small Claims CourtState court of limited jurisdiction created to consider matters involving a small sum of money damages.
VenueThe proper place within a judicial district to bring a lawsuit.
Trial CourtThe court where the facts of a case are heard and decided.
EvidenceInformation presented at the trial by the parties and accepted by the court.
Original JurisdictionThe power of a court to take a case, try it, and decide it.
Appellate CourtCourt that reviews the action of trail courts.
Diversity of CitizenshipA basis for federal court jurisdiction when parties of a lawsuit are citizens of different states
Concurrent JurisdictionWhen two or more courts have the power to hear a case.
Exclusive JurisdictionWhen a case can only be heard in a particular court
Judicial CircuitGeographical limits of the jurisdiction of a federal circuit court of appeals
JuryA group of citizens chose to hear and decide questions of fact in legal actions.
Bench triala trial heard by a judge and not a jury
Voir DireThe questioning of prospective jurors to expose possible bias.
Challenge for CauseChallenge to a prospective juror based on possible bias in the dispute before the court
Peremptory ChallengeChallenge to a prospective juror without cause.

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