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Common Chemistry Vocabulary

AB
AcidA substance that produces hydrogen ions (H+) in soloution; acid soloutions have a pH less than 7.
Acid RainRain with a pH ;ess than 5.6; produced by substances in the air reacting with rainwater to make it acidic. Acid rain is harmful to animals and plants and increases the rate of weathering.
AlcoholType of comound formed when -OH groups replace replace on or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon.
organic compoundmost compounds which contain the element carbon
hydrocarbonA compound made up of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
saturated hydrocarbonHydrocarbons containing only single-bonded carbon atoms.
isomercompounds that have identical chemical formulas but different molecualr structures.
unsaturated hydrocarbonHydrogens that contain at least one double or triple bond between carbon atoms, such as ethane and ethyne.
aromatic compoundA compound which contains a benzene ring structure.
substituted hydrocarbonone or more of its hydrogen atoms replaced by atoms of other elements.
alcoholThis is formed when -OH groups replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon
biomassAn organic material from wood, sugarcane, corn, crop, and animal wastes.
biogasA mixture of gases, mostly methane, produced from biomass
energy farminggrowing plants for the purpose to provide biomass and biogas for realistic energy supplies.
gasoholA misture that will allow current gasoline supplies last longer.
polymerHuge molecules made up of many smaller organic molecules that have formed new bonds and are linked together.
proteinspolymers formed from organci compounds called amino acids, contain nirtrogen.
nucleic acidpolymers that control activities and reproduction of cells.
carbohydrateorganic compouns in which there are twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms.
lipidsA group of organic compounds which are made up by fats, oils, and related compounds.
chemical reactiona reaction when one or more substances are changed to new substances.
reactantThe substances that are about to react in a chemical reaction
productsThe new substances produced from a chemical reaction
coefficentRepresent the number of units of each substance taking part in a reaction.
chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)These are a group of compounds which move into the Earth's atmosphere and decompose.
balanced chemical equationThis is something which has the same number of atoms on both sides of the equation.
synthesis reactionWhen two or more substances combine o create another sustance.
decomposition reactionWhen one substance breaks down or decomposes into two or more simpler substances.
single-displacement reactionThis occurs when one element replaces another in a compound.
double-displacement reactionThis takes place if a precipitate, water, or gas forms when two ionic compounds in soloution are combined
precipitateAn insoluble compound formed during a double displacement reaction.
exothermic reactionIn this reaction energy and heat is given off during the reaction.
catalystA substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without itself being permanently changed
inhibitorThese are used to combine with one of the reactants ( a food preservitive is a good example)
endothermic reactionIn this reaction energy must be provided for the reaction to take place.
baseA substance that produces hydroxide ions, OH- in soloution.
indicatorAn organic compound that changes color in an acid or base.
dehydrating agentA substance that can remove water from materials.
PicklingA process in which ixudes ad other impurities are removed from metal surfaces by dipping the metals in hydrochloric acid.
hydronium ionWhen an H+ is removed from a polar molecule, H3O+ forms
strong acidAn acid which almost completely ionizes in soloution
weak acidAn acid which only partly ionizes in soloution
strong baseA base which dissociates completely in soloution
weak baseSomething which has few ions is this type of base.
pHA measure of the concentration of hydronium ions.
planktonAquatic plants and animals that form the food base of the fod chain for small fish.
NeutralizationA chemical reaction between an acid and a base where hydronium ions from the acid combine with hydroxide ions from the base to produce water.
saltA compound formed when negative ions from an acid combine with the positive ions during a neutralization reaction.
titrationa process om which a soloution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another soloution.
soapOrganic salts which are made by reacting fats or oils with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
soaponificationThe process of making soap.
detergentOrganic salts having structures similar to those of soaps.
esterOrganic compound formed by the reaction of an organic acid with an alcohol.


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