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World War I

Three Emperor's LeagueA secret agreement among the emperors of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia that did not last
Triple AllianceBrought Italy into the alliance between Austria-Hungary and Germany
Reinsurance Treaty of 1887Meant to keep friendship with Russia when the Three Emperor's League collapsed
Triple EntenteLoose coalition of Britain, France, and Russia
Francis FerdinandHeir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; was assassinated in Sarajevo
Gavrilo PrincipBosnian revolutionary who assassinated Ferdinand
Black HandSerbian nationalist organization that wanted to unit Bosnia and Herzegovina with Serbia
UltimatumA final set of demands
MobilizationA process that involves calling troops into active service
The Schlieffen PlanCalled for German troops to crush France quickly before the Russians could gear up their war machine to full readiness
No-man's landA wasteland of barbed wires and land mines that lay between the front-line trenches and the trenches of the opposing side
New WeaponsTank, poison gas, machine guns, aircrafts, submarines
Central PowersGermany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
Allied PowersBritain, France, Russia (United States and Japan)
Vladimir LeninLeader of radical revolutionaries who promised peace with an end to the Provisional Government in Russia
Treaty of Brest-LitovskWithdrew Russia from the war; caused Russian to lose 25% of its population and land
PropagandaThe spreading of ideas or beliefs that further a particular cause or damage an opposing cause
LusitaniaSunk by the Germans killing 128 Americans
Unrestricted Submarine WarfareDeclaration by Germany that they would sink any ship in waters near the enemy coast
Zimmerman telegramA secret message from the German foreign minister suggesting that Mexico become a German ally and regain territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona that it had lost to the United States
ArmisticeAn end to the fighting
Wilson's Fourteen PointsA goal for postwar settlement
First PointCalled for "open covenants of peace, openly arrived at"
Points two through fiveCalled for freedom of seas, free trade, limits on armaments, and a peaceful adjustment of all colonial claims
Points six through thirteenDetermining borders on the basis of ethnic groups living in an area
Fourteenth pointCalled for the creation of a "general association of nations" to guarantee the "political independence" and territorial integrity of great and small nations alike
"Big Four"Woodrow Wilson, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, Vittorio Orlando
ReparationsPayment for war damages
League of NationsAn attempt to plan for peace
Versailles TreatyFrance attained Alsace-Lorraine; Germany was forced to admit responsibility for the war and to commit to giving reparations; deprived Germany of its overseas colonies
MandatesTerritories that were administered but not owned by league members


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