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Biology Words

ARTIFICAL SELECTIONa technique in which the breeder selects particular traits
NATURAL SELECTIONa mechanism for change in population that enables an organism to better survive
MIMICRYa structural adaptation for an organism that provides protection for an organism by copying the appearance of another species
CAMOUFLAGEa structural adaptation that enables an organism to blend with its surroundings
HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTUREa modified structure that is seen among different groups of descendants
ANALOGOUS STRUCTUREany body structure that is similar in function but different in structure
VESTIGIAL STRUCTUREany body structure that is reduced in function in a living organism but may have been used in an ancestor
GENE POOLcollection of genes among a population
ALLELIC FREQUENCYthe percentage of a particular allele in the gene pool
GENETIC EQUILIBRIUMa population in which frequency of alleles does not change from generation to generation
GENETIC DRIFTthe alteration of allelic frequencies by chance processes
STABILIZING SELECTIONthe type of natural selection that favors average individuals in a population
DIRECTIONAL SELECTIONwhen one of the extreme forms of a trait is favored by natural selection
DISRUPTIVE SELECTIONindividuals with both extreme forms of a trait are at a selective advantage
SPECIATIONthe evolution of new species
GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATIONwhen a physical barrier separates a population into groups
REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATIONwhen formerly interbreeding organisms are prevented from producing fertile offspring
POLYPLOIDany species with any multiple of the normal set of chromosomes
GRADUALISMthe idea that species originate through gradual buildup of new adaptations
PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUMstates that speciation occurs quickly in rapid bursts with long periods of stabilizing in between
ADAPTIVE RADIATIONprocess of evolution of an ancestral species into an array of species that occupy different niches
DIVERGENT EVOLUTIONthe pattern of evolution in which species once all similar to the ancestral species become more and more distinct
CONVERGENT EVOLUTIONthe pattern of evolution in which distantly related organisms evolve similar traits

Matt McGregor

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