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Vocabulary on Human Genetics

autosomehumans have 22 pairs
X chromosomefound as a pair in females
Y chromosomein diploid cells of the male
sex chromosomesX and Y
sex linkagegenes located on the X chromosome
mutationchange in the structure of DNA or chromosomes or number of chromosomes
multiple alleles3 or more different genes for a trait (ex. blood types)
genesection of DNA, having the code to synthesize a polypeptide
gene counselinginformation to help individuals understand their reproduction and hereditary options
geneticsstudy of DNA and the priciples of heredity and variation in organisms
genotypegenetic make up of an organism
gene linkageassociation of genes on the same chromosome
chromosomal alterationchange in the number of or structure of chromosomes, resulting in mutations
disjunctionseperation of the tetrad structure during the metaphase stage of meiosis I.
Down's Syndromeextra 21st autosome
nondisjunctionthe failure of tetrads to seperate properly during meiotic cell division
phenotypeobservable characteristics of an organism
polyploidyextra chromosomes
karyotypechromosomes of an individual are studied
PhenylketonuriaPKU; inability to synthesize a single protein
Sickle Cell Anemiagene mutation most likely to occur in African individuals
Tay Sachs Diseasegene mutation most likely to occur in Jewish individuals
translocationtransfer of a section of one chromosome to a non homologous chromosome

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