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Biology Vocabulary

Chapters 40 and 42

baleenthe bony plates that function to filter food from water in some whales
bicuspida tooth with two points used to shred food
caninea pointed tooth used to grip and tear
cecuma blind sac usually found in the digestive system
diaphragma thoracic cavity muscle used in breathing
echolocationa method of navigation similar to sonar in which the sound produced bounces off an object
gestation periodlength of pregnancy
incisorthe chisellike tooth used for biting and cutting
mammary glandone of the milk-secreting glands of mammals
molara flattened tooth used to grind and crush
omnivorean animal that eats both plants and animals
placentathe organ that nourishes the unborn young of placental mammals
rumenthe storage chamber in the stomach of artiodactyls
therapsidthe reptile group from which mammals evolved
ungulatea hoofed mammal
viviparousreferring to organisms that carry and nourish the young inside the body before birth
abdominal cavitythe posterior portion of the human ventral cavity
actinone of the two protein filaments in a muscle cell that function in contraction
appendicular skeletonin vertebrates, the bones extending from the axial skeleton
axial skeletonthe backbone, skull, and associated bones of vertebrates
bursaa fluid-filled sac that aids lubrication in some joints
cardiac musclethe involuntary muscle of the heart
cartilagea strong, flexible connective tissue
compact bonethe layer of bone just beneath the periosteum that gives the bone its strength
connective tissuethe most common type of human body tissue, which supports and holds body structuress together
cranial cavitythe area in which the breain rests
dermisthe layer of skin beneath the epidermis
dorsal cavitythe cavity containing the organs of the nervous system
endoskeletonan internal skeleton; in humans, the 206 bones that are the body framework
epidermisthe outer layer of skin that encloses the body in a continuous sheet
epiphyseal platea band of cartilage located between the shaft adn the end of a long bone
hair folliclea structure in the skin that produces hair
Haversian canala channel containing nerves and blood vessels making up compact bone
insertionthe attachment point of a tendon to a moving bone
jointthe place where two bones meet
keratina protein substance that forms hair, and fingernails
ligamenta connective tissue in a joint
melanina substance that determines skin color and protects the body from overexposure to sun
musclea contractile organ consisting of many cells
muscle fibera skeletal muscle cell that runs the length of teh muscle and contains many nuclei
muscle tissuethe body tissue that enables movement
myofibrila contracting thread in the skeletal muscle
myosinthe thick protein filament of a sarcomere
nervous tissuea type of human body tissue that conducts electrical impulses
oil glanda skin gland that secretes sebum
organseveral types of tissues that together perform a bodilly function
organ systema group of organs that interact to perform a set of related tasks
originattachment point of a tendon to a stationary bone
ossificationprocess by which cartilage in converted to bone
osteocytea living bone cell
peroisteumthe tough outer membrane of a bone; the point where tendons attach muscles to bones
sarcomerea dark band that runs from side to side down each myofibril
skeletal musclevoluntary muscle, attached to bones by tendons, that moves parts of the body
thoracic cavitythe upper ventral cavity of the human body, containing teh heart, lungs, and esophagus
smooth musclean involuntary muscle
spinal cavitythe area that surrounds and protects the spinal cord
spongy bonethe lacy network of connective tissue in the center of a bone
striationa dark band of skeletal muscle that functions in contracting
ventral cavitythe cavity containing the thoracic and abdominal cavities
tendona tough, solid band of connective tissue that supports and connects body parts


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