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Biology Vocabulary

Chapter 43 and 45

alveolione of the air sacs found in the lungs
antibodya blood protein produced by B cells that destroys antigens
antigena substance that stimulates the production of antibodies
aortathe largest artery in the body
arteriolea small artery
arterya vessel that carries blood from the heart
artioventricular nodea group of nerves in the heart that functions in establishing the heartbeat
atriumthe anterior chamber of the heart
basal metabolic ratethe energy expended by the body when resting
blood clota structure caused by the entrapment of red blood cells in fibrin
bronchione of the two branches of the trachea that enter the lungs
bronchiolea small tube that branches from the bronchi within the lungs
capillarythe ability of a liquid to move upward against the force of gravity by molecular attraction to a surrounding surface
circulatory systemthe system that distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells in all parts of the body
coronary arterya vessel supplying blood to the heart
coronary circulationthe systemic subsystem that supplies blood to the heart
diaphragma thoracic cavity muscle used in breathing
diastolea phase in the heartbeat when the ventricles relax adn the blood flows in from the atria
erythrocytea red blood corpuscle
expirationthe process in which air is forced out of the lungs
external respirationthe exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood
fibrinthe long sticky threads that function in blood clotting
fibrinogena blood protein essential for the formation of blood clots
hearta muscular organ that pumps blood
hemoglobinan iron-containing protein in blood
hepatic portal circulationthe system of blood movement through the digestive tract and liver
inferior vena cavathe large vein carrying blood from the lower part of the body
inspirationthe process of taking air into the lungs
internal respirationthe exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of hte body
larynxthe voice box that houses the vocal cords
leukocytea white blood cell
lungsthe respiratory organ where gas exchange occurs
lymphthe fluid of the lymphatic system
lymphatic systema series of one-way vessels that carries intercellular fluid from tissues to the bloodstream
pericardiumthe tough saclike membrane that surrounds the heart
phagocytea white blood cell that engulfs foreign cells
pharynxthe open area at the back of the mouth
plasmathe liquid component of blood
plateleta partial cell needed to form blood clots
pulmonary arterythe artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
pulmonary circulationthe movement of blood between the heart and the lungs
pulmonary veinthe vein that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
renal circulationa subsystem of systemic circulation that involves the movement of blood through the kidneys
respiratory systemthe system of organs that function to transport gases to and from the circulatory system
Rh factora type of antigen found in blood that may cause complications during some pregnancies
septuma thick wall that divides the heart lengthwise
sinoatrial nodethe nerve tissue in the right atrium that regulates the contraction rate of the heart
superior vena cavathe large vein carrying blood from the upper part of the body
systemic circulationthe movement of blood between the heart and all parts of the body except the lungs
systolethe phase of the heartbeat in which ventricles contract and force blood into the arteries
total lung capacitythe amount of gas that the lungs are able to hold
tracheathe tube that connects the pharynx to the lungs
veina vessel carrying blood to the heart
ventriclethe lower chamber or chambers of the heart
venulea small vessel in the network of veins
vital lung capacitythe maximum amount of air a person can inhale or exhale
absorptionin excretion, the movement of wastes from the bloodstream to the excretory system
alimentary canalthe digestive tract
bilea yellowish fluid secreted by the liver that functions as an emulsifier
bolusa ball of thoroughly chewed and moistened food in the digestive tract
Bowman's capsulea cup-shaped structure of the nephron of a kidney that encloses the glomerulus and where absorption takes place
caloriethe amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree C
Calorieone kilocalorie; the unit used to measure the amount of energy a particular food provides
carbohydratean organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in which the hydrogen-to oxygen ratio is two to one
cardiac sphinctera circular muscle located between the esophagus adn the stomach
cholesterola type of steroid; a lipid
chymethe mixture formed in the stomach from digested food particles and gastric fluid
colonthe large intestine
cortexthe outermost portion of an organ
dehydrationthe condition resulting from excessive water loss
digestionbreaking down food into usable molecules
disaccharidea double sugar formed from two monosaccharides
duodenumthe first section of the small intestine
enzymea protein that acts as a catalyst in intermediary metabolism
epiglottisa flap of tissue that covers the trachea
esophagusthe tube connecting the mouth and the pharynx to the stomach
excretionthe process of removing metabolic wastes
fata triglyceride that is solid at room temperature
feceswast materials that pass through the anus
filtrationthe process in the kidney in which materials from the blood are forced out of the glomerulus and absorbed by teh cells of Bowman's capsule
gallbladderthe saclike organ connected to the liver that produces bile
gastric fluida liquid secreted by gastric glands
gastric pitthe open end of gastric glands through which secretions are released
glomerulusa cluster of capillaries that receives blood from the renal artery and that is enclosed in Bowman's capsule
hard palatethe bony roof of the mouth
hydrolysisthe splitting of a molecule through reaction with water
ileumthe middle portion of the small intestine
jejunumthe middle section of the small intestine
kidneyan excretory organ in which wastes are filtered from the blood
lacteala tiny lymph vessel
large intestinethe organ of digestion in which water is reabsorbed
livera large organ that aids digestion
medullathe innermost portion of an organ
microvillione of the extensions of the membranes covering the villi
mineralan inorganic substance
monosaccharidea simple six-carbon sugar such as fructose or glucose
nephronthe functional unit of the kidney
nutrienta chemical substance an organism needs to grow and function properly
pancreasthe organ that lies behind the stomach against the back wall of the abdominal cavity
peristalsisa series of rhythmic muscular contractions
polysaccharidea complex carbohydrate composed of three or more monosaccharides
proteinan organic compound composed of one or more chains of polypeptides, which in turn are formed from amino acids
pyloric sphincterthe valve that separates the stomach from the small intestine
reabsorptiona process in the kidney by which material return to the blood from the nephron
renal pelvisthe central structure of the kidney
renal tubulea long tube with permeable walls in a nephron
salivaa mixture of water, mucus, and a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase
soft palatea soft area made of folded membranes that separates the mouth cavity from the nasal cavity
stomachan organ that prepares food for absorption by both physical and chemical activity
triglyceridea lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glyceral molecule
uretera narrow tube through which urine flows from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder
urethrathe tube through which urine flows from the urinary bladder out of the body
urinary bladdera muscular sac that stores urine
urinea liquid containing wastes that have been removed from the blood
villione of the small projections lining the small intestine
vitamina complex organic compound that serves as a cofactor for enzymes
esophagusthe tube connecting the mouth and the pharynx to the stomach
disaccharidea double sugar formed from two monosaccharides
polysaccharidea complex carbohydrate composed of three or more monosaccharides
triglyceridea lipid made of three fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule


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