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Egyptfounded in North Africa - very advanced civilization - located on the Nile River.
Nile Riverlongest river in the world - from central Africa to the MediterraneanSea - Victoria Lake is the source of the Nile.
Gift of the NileNile River flooded same time every year - nature’s way of fertilizing the soil (flood would leave good top soil).
Siriusa star that marked the beginning of the flood season - the Egyptian calendar revolved around the flood season.
Old kingdom(2,700 b.c. to 2,200 b.c.) - first unification of Egypt as a country.
King Meneshe united upper and lower Egypt into one country.
Memphiscapital city of ancient Egypt (old kingdom).
Dynastya ruling family.
Pyramida large structure built as tombs for their rulers - made of limestone and sandstone.
Monarchywhen a country is ruled by a king or queen - the king’s or queen’s power is hereditary.
Anarchyno government, chaos.
Middle kingdom(2,200 b.c. to 1,800 b.c.) - at this time culture grew in Egypt - Egypt was not militarily strong at this time.
Golden age of Egypta period of prosperity and cultural advancement - Egypt was wealthy - trade began at this time.
Thebescapital city of Egypt during the middle kingdom.
Hyksostribe invaded & conquered Egypt ending middle kingdom- ruled Egypt for 100 years- time jewish people came to Egypt.
Chariotfirst tank used by hyksos - small wagon with two wheels pulled by 4 horses.
New kingdom (1,600 b.c. to 945 b.c.)began when Egyptians overthrew the hyksos.
Empirewhen a country conquers other lands and rules it as a part of that country.
Theocracywhen the religious leader of a country is also the government leader.
Pharaohgovernment leader or king who also was considered the high priest (religious leader) .
Polytheismthe belief in many gods.
Amon-rahead god of the Egyptians - sun god.
Akhenationpharaoh who believed Egyptians worshipped too many gods- he believed Egyptians should only worship one god (amon-ra).
HieroglyphicsEgyptian picture writing to express words and ideas.
PapyrusEgyptian paper made out of crushed reeds.
Mummificationpreservation of dead bodies (internal organs were taken out of the dead body & body was filled w/herbs & spices (Egyptians learned about the body this way).
Class systema social order where people are ranked according to birth, job or wealth.
Mesopotamiagood farmland located between the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers- the “cradle of civilization” it was where civilization began .
Tigris & Euphrates RiversMesopotamia was located between these two rivers.
Fertile Crescentarea of very good farmland - runs from the Mediterranean Sea through north syria to the persian gulf.
Sumerians1st civilization in Mesopotamia dating back to 3,500 b.c.- advanced society- the wagon wheel, potter’s wheel, 12 month calendar, bronze, & a new way to make arches stronger was invented at this time.
City-Statea city that was also a country in itself - it governed itself and was independent.
Urone of the earliest city states built in Mesopotamia located on the euphrates river.
Ziggurata religious temple built in the middle of the city - each city had its own god.
CuneiformSumerian form of writing based on wedge shaped figures.
Styluswriting instrument of the Sumerians.
Tabletclay tablet used by Sumerians to write on.
Gilgameshepic poem - oldest recorded epic poem in history.
Anhead god of the Sumerians - known as the “god of the seasons”.
Sargon iking of the akkadians who built the first kingdom in Mesopotamia in 2,300b.c.
Akkadiansgroup of people from arabian peninsula- showed up in Mesopotamia in 5,000 b.c.- akkad was the name of their kingdom.
Amoritesa group of people who invaded Mesopotamia from western syria .
Babylonthe capital city of the empire Babylonia.
Hammurabithe king of bablyonia- first king to write down laws- there were 282 laws in his kingdom.
Hittitesgroup of people who conquered Babylon in 1,600 b.c- from asia minor (turkey)- first to use iron in their weapons.
Ironused by the Hittites in making their weapons.
Indus rivercenter of civilization in India, nw on Indian subcontinent- it drains into the Arabian Sea- 2,500 b.c. earliest people along Indus river in a civilized society.
Subcontinenta triangular shape of land sticking into the Indian ocean and surrounded by mountains.
Himalayasthe highest mountains in the world located northeast of the Indian subcontinent.
Hindu kushthe mountains located northwest of the Indian subcontinent - these mountains protected India from being invaded.
Ganges riverriver located in northeastern part of India.
Brahmaputra riverriver in northeast of India.
Monsoonswinter monsoon winds blow from northeast through the mountains ( air is dry ) & summer monsoon winds blow from the southwest through the oceans ( very wet ) - India is very dependent upon the monsoons.
Harappaone of the earliest cities in India on the Indus river.
Citadela fortress that overlooks a city - protects the people.
Pictogramssymbols (closely related to the cuneiform) used for writing - there was no translation.
Zhong guothe middle kingdom where Chinese culture began.
Gobi desertthis desert protected china from being invaded from the north.
Huang he river (yellowearly Chinese civilization began here in 5,000 b.c.
Chang jiang river (yangtzea river in northern Chinese plain.
Xi jiang rivera river in the northern Chinese plain.
Loessthe yellow soil that enriched the yellow river valley after floods.
Yu the greata Chinese engineer who was a mythical figure - he found china’s first dynasty around 2,000 b.c.
Shang dynasty (1,700 b.c. to 1,000 b.c.)the first recorded dynasty of china.
Oracle bonesanimal bones that Chinese priest and emperors used to foretell specific questions - the way the bones broke gave an answer to a question.
Scripta form of writing used by the Chinese - used symbols to describe sounds, ideas and objects.
Anyang- the ancient Chinese capital (one of 7 capitals founded in the northern plain of china).
Wuhe overthrew the shang dynasty and founded the zhou dynasty.
Mandatethe authority to rule (mandate from heaven - god allowed the emperors to rule).
What did most ancient civilizations have in common?1built near rivers 2were ruled by kings 3believed in many gods 4farmers 5symbols for writing 6strict laws.

Lois Robert

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