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Psychomotor Skills

Education Technology 572
text: Instructional Design by Smith & Ragan, Unit 15

Discrete SkillsSkills with a single or few steps. Distinct, task-determined beginnings and endings
Continuous SkillsSkills with subtle beginning/ending points, performer-determined
Serial SkillsSubskills assembled to form a major skill
Closed SkillsSkills performed without active influence from the environment
Open SkillsSkills used when the environment causes the performer to make continuous adjustments
Executive SubroutinesControl decisions and supply subordinate skills in a hierarchical organization or plan
Temporal PatterningIntegrates sequences over time in which the skilled performer employs pacing and anticipation
Motor ProgramsThe cognitive components of skills
Massed PracticeOne or a few intensive, extended periods of practice with little or no rest in between
Spaced PracticeRelatively short practice sessions are distributed over time
Whole PracticePracticing “chunks” of separate skills together, at the same time
Part PracticeSeparating skills to be practiced individually to be mastered before assembling into a whole
Progressive Part MethodPracticing by adding steps sequentially
Backwards ChainingPracticing by beginning with the last step, adding steps in reverse order
Proprioceptive FeedbackFeedback from internal sources
Cognitive PhasePhase of learning in which WHAT to do is taught
Associative PhasePhase of learning in which HOW to do it is taught
Autonomous PhasePhase of learning in which practice and feedback is used for the learner to gain proficiency
AutomaticityPerformance of the cognitive component of a skill is less and less conscious, with each physical movement cueing the next movement

Eric Tremmel

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