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Chapter 22 Life Science

Nutrients and Digestion

AB
nutrientssubstances in foods that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth and repair
carbohydrateprovide the main source of energy; sugars, starches and cellulose
glucosea simple sugar. The basic fuel your body uses.
cellulosea complex carbohydrate that your body can not break down
proteinsused for growth. Made up of subunits called amino acids
fatsprovide energy and help your body absorb some vitamins
vitaminsneeded in small quantities to help your body use other nutrients
mineralsinorganic nutrient that regulates many chemical reactions
waterdissolves and carries nutrients, removes waste,enables chemical reactions to occur. 60% of body weight
food groupfoods that contain the same nutrients
antioxidantssubstances that prevent other chemicals from reacting with oxygen
digestionthe process that breaks down food into small molecules so they can move into the blood.
enzymesspeed up the rate of a chemical reaction
salivary amylasean enzyme secreted in the mouth that breaks down starch
pepsina stomach enzyme that breaks down proteins
mechanical digestiontakes place when food is chewed and mixed in the mouth and stomach
chemical digestionbreaks down large molecules into different smaller ones.
salivaa watery substance produced by the mouth
peristalsiscontractions that move food along the digestive system
chymefood that has been changed into a thin watery liquid
Duodenumthe first part of the small intestine. Where the major portion of digestion takes place
Bileproduced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
emulsificationphysically breaking up fat into smaller pieces
Villifingerlike projections that increase the surface area of the small intestine. Allows for more places for food to be absorbed
large intestinemain job is to absorb water from the chyme
Bacterialive in the large intestine and break down cellulose. Produce vitamins you need.
Pancreasan organ that produces enzymes that digest proteins, fats and carbohydrates


Physics and Chemistry Teacher
Sacred Hearts Academy
honolulu, HI

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