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Chapter 14 Vocabulary Terms

AB
alientationa sense of not belonging, and a feeling that no one cares what happens to you
basic demographic equationgrowth rate=births-deaths+net migration
citya place in which a large number of people are permanently based and do not produce their own food
communitya place people identify with, where they sense that they belong and that others care what happens to them
crude birth ratethe annual number of births per 1,000 population
crude death ratethe annual number of deaths per 1,000 population
demographic transitiona three-stage historical process of population growth; first, high birth rates and high death rates; second, high birth rates and low death rates; and third, low birth rates and low death rates; a fourth stage may be emerging, population shrinkage
demographic variablesthe three factors that influence population growth; fertility, mortality, and net migration
demographythe study of the size, composition, growth, and distribution of human populations
disinvestmentthe withdrawal of investments by financial institutions, which seals the fate of an urban area
edge citya large clustering of service facilities and residences near a highway intersection that provides a sense of place to people who live, shop, and work there
enterprise zonethe use of economic incentives in a designated area with the intention of encouraging investment there
exponential growth curvea pattern of growth in which numbers double during approximately equal intervals, thus accelerating in the latter stages
fertility ratethe number of children that the average woman bears
gentrificationthe displacement of the poor in a section of a city by the relatively affluent, who renovate the former's homes
growth ratethe net change in a population after adding births, subracting deaths, and either adding or subtracting net migration
human ecologyRobert Park's term for the relationship between people and their environment (natural resources, such as land); also called urban ecology
invasion-succession cyclethe process of one group of people displacing a group whose racial/ethnic or social class characteristics differ from their own
machismoan emphasis on male strength and dominance
Malthus theoreman observation by Thomas Malthus that althought the food supply increases only arithmetically, population grows geometrically
megalopolisan urban area consisting of at least two metropolises and their many suburbs
metropolisa central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbs
net migration ratethe difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants per 1,000 population
population pyramida graphic representation of a population, divided into age and sex
population shrinkagethe process by which a country's population becomes smaller because its birth rate and immigration are too low to replace those who die and emigrate
redliningthe officers of a financial institution deciding not to make loans in a particular area
suburbanizationthe movement from the city to the suburbs
suburbsthe communities adjacent to the political boundaries fo a city
urbanizationan increasing proportion of a population living in cities and those cities having an increasing influence on their society
urban renewalthe rehabilitation of a rundown area of a city, which usually results in the displacement of the poor who are living in that area
zero population growtha demographic condition in which women bear only enough children to reproduce the population


Social Science Instructor
Metropolitan Community College
NE

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