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Basic Geograpy Terms and World Climate Regions

Tropical Wethot all year round, heavy precipitation all year, rain forests
Tropical Wet-and-Dryhot all year round, heavy precipitation when sun is overhead, dry when not, tall grasses and scattered trees
Semiaridvariable tempuratures, light precipitation, short grasses
Desertvariable tempuratures, very light precipitation, scrub, cactus, and grasses
Mediterraneanhot summers, cool winters, dry summers, wet winters, grasses, scrub, some trees
Humid Subtropicalhot summers, cool winters, year round precipitation, but heavier in summer than in winter, forests and grasses
Marinewarm summers, cool winters, year round precipitation, heavier in winter than in summer, forests and grasses
Continentalwarm summers, cold winter, year round precipitation, heavier in summer than winter, trees and grasses
Subarcticcool summers, cold winters, light precipitation, trees, some grasses, mosses
Tundracool summers, cold winters, light precipitation, grasses, mosses, lichens
Polarcold all year round, light precipiation, no vegetation
HighlandTempurature, precipitation, and vegetation all vary greatly in these areas depending on altitude and direction of prevailing winds
basina region drained by a river; land largely enclosed by higher land
baypart of a body of water that reaches into the land
canala man-made ditch for transportation or irrigation
canyona deep, narrow valley with steep sides
capea point of land sticking out into a body of water
channela deep, narrow body of water connection two larger bodies of water; the deeper part of a waterway
cliffa high, steep wall of rock
continentone of the seven large bodies of land on the earth
deltaland deposited at the mouth of a river
dividea height of land that separates river basins
downstreamthe direction toward which a river flows
fiorda narrow inlet of the sea with steep banks; made by a glacier
glaciera large body of slowly moving ice
gulfpart of a body of water that reaches into the land; usually larger than a bay
harboraa sheltered place where ships may anchor safely
highlandsHills, mountains, or plateaus
hilla raised part of the Earth's surface, with sloping sides; smaller than a mountain
islandland entirely surrounded by water; smaller than a continent
isthmusa narrow strip of land that connects two larger bodies of land
lakean inland body of water
lowlandlow and usually level land
mountainhigh, rocky land, usually with steep sides and a pointed or rounded top; higher than a hill
mouth (of a river)the place where a river flows into a larger body of water
oceanone of the four large bodies of water on Earth
ocean currenta stream of water moving in a definate direction through the ocean. Some currents are warm, some cold
pennisulaa body of land almost surrounded by water
plainbroad, level land
plateaua region that is mostly high, flat land
reefa ridge of rock or sand at or near the surface of water
reservoira lake where water is stored for future use; sometimes formed by a dam
rivera large stream of water flowing through the land
seaa large body of water partly or completely enclosed by alnd
seacoastland next to the sea
sounda body of water separating one of more islands from the mainland
source (of a river)the place where a river beings, usually in highlands
straita narrow stretch of water that connects two larger bodies of water
swampland that is soaked with water
tributarya river or stream that flows into a larger river
upstreamthe direction from which a river flows
valleylow land between hills or mountains
volcanoa mountain formed of rock or ash thrown up from inside the Earth

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