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Chemical Bonding

Valence ElectronsElectrons in the highest occupied energy level
Octet RuleAtoms will react to achieve 8 electrons in the outer energy level
Covalent BondsElectrons are shared
Molecular FormulasShow the number and kinds of atoms present in a compound
Double Bonds2 pairs of electrons are shared
Triple Bonds3 pairs of electrons are shared
Resonance Structures2 or more equally valid dot structures can be written
BenzeneCompound with resonance
Dipoletwo separated, but equal and opposite charges
ElectronegativityMeasure of the attraction for electrons in a shared pair
Nonpolar Values0-0.4 Electronegativity difference
Polar Values0.5-1.7 electronegativity difference
Ionic Values1.8 + Electronegativity difference
London Dispersion ForcesAttraction between electrons from one molecule to the positive nuclei in another molecule
Hydrogen BondingHydrogen of one molecule is attracted to at atom in another molecule
Dipole-Dipole InteractionsPolar molecules are attracted to each other
CationPositive Ion
AnionNegative Ion
Coordination numbernumber of opposite ions next to each ion in a crystal lattice
VSEPR TheoryValence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion - Predicts shapes of molecules

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