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STRUCTURE & FUNCTION OF THE BODY, CHAPTER 4, THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM AND BODY MEMBRANES

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY BY PAMELA SUE

AB
CLASSIFICATION OF BODY MEMBRANESEPITHELIAL, CONNECTIVE TISSUE
EPITHELIAL MEMBRANESCOMPOSED OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE AND AN UNDERLYING LAYER OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANCESCOMPOSED LARGELY OF VARIOUS TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
EPITHELIAL MEMBRANES ARE COMPOSED OFCUTANEOUS MEMBRANES, SEROUS MEMBRANES, MUCOUS MEMBRANES
CUTANEOUS MEMBRANETHE SKIN
SEROUS MEMBRANESSIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM ON A CONNECTIVE TISSUE BASEMENT MEMBRANE
MUCOUS MEMBRANESLINES BODY SURFACES THAT OPEN DIRECTLY TO THE EXTERIOR, PRODUCE MUCUS, A THICK SECRETION THAT KEEPS THE MEMBRANES SOFT AND MOIST
TYPES OF SEROUS MEMBRANESPARIETAL AND VISCERAL
PARIETALLINE WALLS OF BODY CAVITIES
VISCERALCOVER ORGANS FOUND IN BODY CAVITIES
EXAMPLES OF SEROUS MEMBRANESPLEURA & PERITONEUM
PLEURAPARIETAL AND VISCERAL LAYERS LINE WALLS OF THORACIC CAVITY AND COVER THE LUNGS
PERITONEUMPARIETAL AND VISCERAL LAYERS LINE WALLS OF ABDOMINAL CAVITY AND COVER THE ORGANS IN THAT CAVITY
DISEASES OF THE SEROUS MEMBRANESPLEURISY & PERITONITIS
PLEURISYINFLAMMATION OF THE SEROUS MEMBRANES THAT LINE THE CHEST CAVITY AND COVER THE LUNGS
PERITONITISINFLAMMATION OF THE SEROUS MEMBRANES IN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY THAT LINE THE WALLS AND COVER THE ABDOMINAL ORGANS
CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANESDO NOT CONTAIN EPITHELIAL COMPONENTS, PRODUCE A LUBRICANT CALLED SYNOVIAL FLUID, EXAMPLES ARE THE SYNOVIAL MEMBRANES IN THE SPACES BETWEEN JOINTS AND IN THE LINING OF BURSAL SACS
STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN - THE TWO PRIMARY LAYERSEPIDERMIS AND DERMIS
EPIDERMISOUTERMOST AND THINNEST PRIMARY LAYER OF SKIN
EPIDERMISCOMPOSED OF SEVERAL LAYERS OF STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
STRATUM GERMINATIVUM (EPIDERMIS)INTERMOST LAYER OF CELLS THAT CONTINUALLY REPRODUCE, AND NEW CELLS MOVE TOWARD THE SURFACE, AS THE CELLS APPROACH THE SURFACE, THEY ARE FILLED WITH A TOUGH, WATERPROOF PROTEIN CALLED KERATIN AND EVENTUALLY FLAKE OFF
STRATUM CORNEUM (EPIDERMIS)OUTER MOST LAYER OF KERATIN-FILLED CELLS
PIGMENT CONTAINING LAYER (EPIDERMIS)EPIDERMAL LAYER THAT CONTAINS PIGMENT CELLS CALLED MELANOCYTES, WHICH PRODUCE THE BROWN PIGMENT MELANIN
BLISTERS (EPIDERMIS)CAUSED BY BREAKDOWN OF UNION BETWEEN CELLS OR PRIMARY LAYERS OF THE SKIN
SYNOVIAL FLUIDLUBRICANT PRODUCED IN THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANES
KERATINTOUGH, WATERPROOF PROTEIN
MELANOCYTESPIGMENT CELLS THAT PRODUCE THE BROWN PIGMENT MELANIN
DERMISDEEPER AND THICKER OF THE TWO PRIMARY SKIN LAYERS AND COMPOSED LARGELY OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
DERMISUPPER AREA OF DERMIS CHARACTERIZED BY PARALLEL ROWS OF PEGLIKE DERMAL PAPILLAE PATTER UNIQUE TO EACH INDIVIDUAL (BASIS OF FINGERPRINTING)
PEGLIKE DERMAL PAPILLAE (DERMIS)BASIS OF FINGERPRINTING
DERMISDEEPER AREAS OF DERMIS FILLED WITH NETWORK OF TOUGH COLLAGENOUS AND STRETCHABLE ELASTIC FIBERS
DERMISNUMBER OF ELASTIC FIBERS DECREASES WITH AGE AND CONTRIBUTES TO WRINKLE FORMATION
DERMISALSO CONTAINS NERVE ENDINGS, MUSCLE FIBERS, HAIR FOLLICLES, SWEAT AND SEBACEOUS GLANDS AND MANY BLOOD VESSELS
APPENDAGES OF THE SKINHAIR, RECEPTORS, NAILS, SKIN GLANDS
SOFT HAIR OF FETUS AND NEWBORN IS CALLEDLANUGO
HAIR GROWTH REQUIRES EPIDERMAL TUBELIKE STRUCTURE CALLEDHAIR FOLLICLE
HAIR GROWTH BEGINS FROMHAIR PAPILLA
HAIR ROOT LIES HIDDEN IN FOLLICLE AND VISIBLE PART OF HAIR CALLED THESHAFT
ARRECTOR PILISPECIALIZED SMOOTH MUSCLE THAT PRODUCES "GOOSE BUMPS" AND CAUSES HAIR TO STAND UP STRAIGHT
RECEPTORS2ND APPENDAGES OF THE SKIN
SPECIALIZED NERVE ENDINGSMAKE IT POSSIBLE FOR SKIN TO ACT AS A SENSE ORGAN
MEISSNER'S CORPUSCLECAPABLE OF DETECTING LIGHT TOUCH
PACINIAN CORPUSCLECAPABLE OF DETECTING PRESSURE
NAILS3RD APPENDAGE OF THE SKIN
PRODUCED BYEPIDERMAL CELLS OVER TERMINAL ENDS OF FINGERS AND TOES
VISIBLE PART IS CALLEDNAIL BODY
ROOT LIESIN A GROOVE AND IS HIDDEN BY THE CUTICLE
CRESCENT-SHAPPED AREA NEAREST ROOT IS CALLEDLUNULA
NAIL BED MAY CHANGE COLORWITH CHANGE IN BLOOD FLOW
SKIN GLANDS4TH APPENDAGE OF THE SKIN
TYPES OF SKIN GLANDSSWEAT OR SUDORIFEROUS, SEBACEOUS
SWEAT OR SUDORIFEROUS GLANDSTYPES ARE ECCRINE SWEAT GLANDS, MOST NUMEROUS, IMPORTANT AND WIDE-SPREAD OF THE SWEAT GLANDS. 2. PRODUCE PERSPIRATION OR SWEAT, WHICH FLOWS THROUGH PORES ON SKIN SURFACE, 3. FUNCTION THROUGHOUT LIFE AND ASSIST IN BODY HEAT REGULATION
ANOTHER TYPE OF SWEAT OR SUDORIFEROUS GLANDSAPOCRINE SWEAT GLANDS, FOUND PRIMARILY IN AXILLA AND AROUND GENITALIA, SECRETE A THICKER SECRETION QUITE DIFFERENT FROM ECCRINE PERSPIRATION, BREAKDOWN OF SECRETION BY SKIN BACTERIA PRODUCES ODOR
SEBACEOUS GLANDSSECRETE OIL OR SEBUM FOR HAIR AND SKIN, LEVEL OF SECRETION INCREASES DURING ADOLESCENCE, SEBUM IN SEBACEOUS GLAND DUCTS MAY DARKEN TO FORM A BLACKHEAD
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKINPROTECTION, TEMPERATURE REGULATION, SENSE ORGAN ACTIVITY
FUNCTION 1 IS PROTECTIONFIRST LINE OF DEFENSE, AGAINST INFECTION BY MICROBES, UV RAYS FROM THE SUN, HARMFUL CHEMICALS, CUTS AND TEARS
FUNCTION 2 IS TEMPERATURE REGULATIONSKIN CAN RELEASE ALMOST 3000 CALORIES OF BODY HEAT PER DAY
MECHANISMS OF TEMP REGULATIONREGULATION OF SWEAT SECRETION AND REGULATION OF FLOW OF BLOOD CLOSE TO THE BODY SURFACE
FUNCTION 3 IS SENSE ORGAN ACTIVITYSKIN FUNCTIONS AS AN ENORMOUS SENSE ORGAN, RECEPTORS SERVE AS RECEIVERS FOR THE BODY, KEEPING IT INFORMED OF CHANGES IN ITS ENVIRONMENT
BURNSTREATMENT AND RECOVERY OR SURVIVAL DEPEND ON TOTAL AREA INVOLVED AND SEVERITY OR DEPTH OF THE BURN
(BURNS) BODY SURFACE AREA IS ESTIMATED USING THERULE OF NINES IN ADULTS
RULE OF NINES IN ADULTSBODY IS DIVIDED INTO 11 AREAS OF 9% EACH, ADDITIONAL 1% OF BODY SURFACE AREA IS AROUND GENITALS
CLASSIFICATION OF BURNSFIRST DEGREE, SECOND DEGREE, THIRD DEGREE,
FIRST DEGREE BURNS (PARTIAL-THICKNESS)ONLY THE SURFACE LAYERS OF EPIDERMIS INVOLVED
SECOND DEGREE BURNS (PARTIAL THICKNESS)INVOLVE THE DEEP EPIDERMAL LAYERS AND ALWAYS CAUSE INJURY TO THE UPPER LAYERS OF THE DERMIS
THIRD DEGREE BURNS (FULL THICKNESS)CHARACTERIZED BY COMPLETE DESTRUCTION OF THE EPIDERMIS AND DERMIS (1) MAY INVOLVE UNDERLYING MUSCLE AND BONE (2) LESION IS INSENSITIVE TO PAIN BECAUSE OF DESTRUCTION OF NERVE ENDINGS IMMEDIATELY AFTER INJURY- INTENSE PAIN IS SOON EXPERIENCED (3)RISK OF INFECTION IS INCREASED
THE EPITHELIAL LAYER AND A SUPPORTIVE CONNECTIVE TISSUE LAYER CALLED THEBASEMENT MEMBRANE

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