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Biology CH 18

Biology Vocab

Artidicial Selectionorganisms selected for specific traits
Natural Selectionmechanism that explains how populations evolve
Mimierymimcing appearence
Camouflagestructual adaption - allows animals to hide
Homologous structurestructures w/common evolutionary origin
Analogous structuresimilar in function w/no common evolutionary origin
Vestigial structurebody structure w/reduced function that may have been earlier stage of species
Gene poolsum of all genes amoung a population
Speciationnew species is formed
Geographic isolationpopulation isolated / no mating
Reproductive isolationinterbreeding organisms are prevented from producing offspring
Gradualismidea - species orginate gradually over time through accumulation of small adaptive changes
Punctuated equilibriumof speciation occur rapidly w/long periods of no speciation in between
Divergent revolutiononce similar species
Convergent evolutionrelated to adaptions
founder of modern evolutionary theoryCharles Darwin
Why Darwin was able to study so many different organismsVoyage on Beagle for about 5yrs.
Galapagos islands and their importanceWest coast of SA - suport great animal/plant diversity
Darwin's BookOn the Origin of species by natural selection - 1859
excamples of structual adaptionsmimicry/camouflage
excamples of physiological adaptionspenecilian/pestasides
how fossils are evidence of evolutionscientists can understand general pathway of evolution
homologous structures are evidence of evolutionby vertabres moving into different enviroments
vestigial structures are evidence of of evolutionreduce function/once used by esential organisms
how embryological development is evidence of evolutionsimilarities amoung vertabrate embryos suggest evolution from common ansestor
genetic comparisons are evidenceDNA studies reveal whn species diversed
how artificial breeding is evidence of evolutionshows interperting relationships
mutations importanceadds new genetic material to gene pool
stablizingfavors average
directionalboth at a selected average
disruptiveboth extremes favored
puntuatedspecies occurs in rapid burst
gradualismspecies originate by gradual build of new adaptions

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