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Archaeology Midterm

Terms for Intro to Archaeology

Thomas Jefferson"Father of American Arch." conducted first stratigraphic arch excavations in new world. focused on ancient indian burial grounds. lacked specialized analytic techniques, foreshadowed scientific arch w hypothesis, empirical obs
Elf Shotrefers to common beliefs about the origin of many spear head shaped artifacts. 16-17c people began noticing dif btwn normal and unusual rock formations
four subtypes of archsociocultural, linguistic, anthropological , biological
sociocultural anthroculture as it exists in modern living people. participnt observation and cultural relativism
cultural relativismexplicit atempt not to impose own cultural standards on other countries
linguistic archnames for categories have to do with the way we see the world
anthropological archsociocultural anthro of past
biological anthrodistinction btwn biology and culture. study of human organism with focus on human organism evolution, disease, pathology
inductivebegin with hypothesis and move to data
deductivebegin with data and move to a hypothesis
artifactany objedt that is a product/consequence of human behavior
middle range theorybridging arguments that are secure from info and body of knowledge to artifacts
geomorphologystudy of physical featres of earths surfaces and their relation to its geological structures
sedimentologystudy of solid matter that is carried by water or wind and settles onthe surface of land
cultural materialism1930-1940 during mcarthy era. certain aspects of culture were given a higher priority than others. based on hierarchical structure where means of production was the foundation to understand everuything
CT scansused to construct 3d images where ther is only a 2d view, like mummy. non evasive technique of looking at whole picure
demographyscientific study of population statistics relating to births deathes and disease
hypothesisconjecture put forward to account for certain facts and used as a basis for further observation. scientists seek to falsify hypothesis because until found to be untrue has some validity
blood analysisuse antibodies to detect blood and species it cam from. "residue analysis" questionable. used to detect blood on tools found wrong
anthracologystudy of coal fire sediments
the garbage projectfresh kills landfill on staten island. unequivocal sign of human presence, hold key to present and past, not assertion but phsyical fact, mental reality embodied in phsyical record
ethnographic archevidence from similar modern day cultures asapplied to the ancient ones
Three Age TheoryJohann Von Eckhart. Studied burial mounds. found three ages of arch chronology. stone age-bronze age -iron age. e indicating advances in tech
antiquarianssomeone connected with the study of ancient times especially related back to biblical times only. not time for prehistory.
uniformitarianismjames hutton. geologist did not deny god but thought the earth ad undergone so many changes that noone could discover the true beginning of earth. earth was delicately balances system: created and destroyed simultaneously
surface collectionsites, looking for objects on surface. best in fields and places where there is a lot of disturbance
test pitsarea where might be a site, set up grid and randomly dig. very distructive, very accurate. sift thru soil to find artifacts,trying to get away from
aerial photography/ satellite remote sensingtake pictures from air to find sites. can give insight on roads, pathways and canals, moisture methods
magnetometryartifacts have magnetic fields. smaller magentic fields burnt rock, ceramics pathways. detects magnetic impulses , non destructive, fast, senstivie, expensive
resistivity surveyhas two probes. send electrical impulses and reads resistivy of ground. when humans occupy they change resistivity of soil.
ground penetrating radarradar sent out by device, measure return, only recieve slices, can find exact depth. can locate only solid large object
geophsyical prospectionmagnetometry, resistivity, GPR, can find small sections or large sites, can find indiv features and idiv artifacts. non destructive
Geographic Info Systems (GIS)ways to handle visual data. organize mas and layers in a way that is understandable and readable and do math functions
Ubarlost city of arabia. used aerial photography, satellite imagine and ground penetrating radar to find lost city.
Testabilityany hypothesis has to have some sort of testability. ability to have test conducted to find out information about hypthothesis
Falsifiabilitycannot prove something to be true, has to be proven false, cant disprove a theory that has already been proven.
some fields of science applied to arc.demography, patholoyg,paleopatholgy,geology, botany, physics
subfields of geologyvolcanology,mineralogy, geomorphology, bedrock geology, sedimentology


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