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Ch. 14 Terms

Key Terms for Chapter 14

EscorialSpanish king's palace
El GrecoMannerist painter who found fame in Spain
Cardinal RichelieuChief minister of Louis XIII who was the real power in France
Charles IKing of Spain who abdicated after agreeing to the Peace of Augsburg
Edict of NantesA French declaration of religious tolerance
Louis XIVThe Sun king
Cardinal MarazinRichelieu's successor who presided over the signing of the Peace of Westphalia
Divine Right TheoryIdea that God created the monarchy and that the monarchy acted as God's representative on earth
Absolute monarchsKings/queens who believed that all power within their state's boundaries rested in their hands
Jean Baptiste ColbertLouis XIV's minister of finance
MercantilismEconomic policy based on idea that there is a limited amount of wealth in the world
Favorable balance of tradeExporting more than you import
IntendantsFrench middle class government agents who collected taxes & administered justice; also acted as spies for monarchy
Philip II of SpainSuccessor to Charles V
Ferdinand ICharles V's brother who became the Holy Roman Emperor
Battle of LepantoBattle between the forces of Spain and the Ottoman Turks
FrondeA revolt of the French nobility against the policies of Marazin; failed due to internal fighting
War of the Spanish SuccessionWar that began when Charles II of Spain decided to leave his empire to Louis XIV's grandson
Miguel de CervantesAuthor of Don Quixote de la Mancha
Henry IV of NavarreFirst Bourbon ruler of France
Treaty of UtrechtThis document ended the War of the Spanish Succession
St. Bartholomew's Day MassacreDay on which 1000's of Huguenots were hunted down and killed
HapsburgRuling family of Austria
HohenzollernRuling family of Prussia
Frederick William, the Great ElectorHohenzollern who began to build the state of Prussia
Jean BoussuetFrench cleric who developed the theory of divine right
hegemonyState in which one sovereign nation establishes its predominance over a geographic area which includes other sovereign states; can be economic, political or cultural
Council of TroublesGroup established by Duke of Alva to punished rebels in the northern provinces of the Spanish Netherlands
Council of BloodDutch name for the Council of Troubles
Balance of PowerPolitical theory that dominated politics in Europe beginning in the 16th century; purpose was to maintain sovereignity of each state
politiquesGroup of Frenchmen that suggested that achieving political stability was more important than achieving religious uniformity
Edict of FountainebleauIssued by Louis XIV; revoked the Edict of Nantes
BourbonsLeading Protestant family during the French Wars of Religion
GuiseFamily that led the Ultra-Catholics during the French Wars of Religion
Duke of AlvaSent by Philip II to suppress the Protestant revolt in the Netherlands
William of OrangeLeader of the Protestant revolt in the Netherlands
Malleus MaleficarumStandard handbook on witchcraft in 17th century
Sprenger and KramerDominican monks who wrote the Malleus Maleficarum
Defenestration of PragueIncident that involved the tossing of the city council of Prague out the window; first event in the 30 Years' War
Peace of WestphaliaTreaty that ended the 30 Years' War
King Gustavus AdolphusSwedish king who entered war on side of Protestants
AbsolutismSystem in which a ruler holds total power; 17th century tied to divine right of kings
Divine Right of KingsIdea that God had created the monarch and monarch was God's rep. on earth; Monarch only had to answer to God
VersaillesPalace of French kings; built during reign of Louis XIV
Favorable Balance of TradeWhen a country exports more than it imports
Frederick William Great Elector of BrandenburgIndividual who began the build-up of the Prussian army
General War CommissariatCreated to levy taxes for the growth of the Prussian army; also became the chief agency of the civil government
Ivan the TerribleFirst Russian ruler to be called czar
Time of TroublesPeriod in Russia before the election of Michael Romanov as czar
Peter the GreatOne of the most famous Romanov rulers; greatest goal was to westernize Russia
Great Northern WarWar between Russia and Sweden
St. PetersburgPeter the Great's warm water port and his "window on the west"

Academic Lead Teacher - Social Studies
Kingwood High School

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