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Rocks and Minerals; density

Chapter 4 in Dynamic Earth Sections 1, 2 and 3

mineralnaturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a definite chemcial composition and crstal structure
inorganicnot formed from living things or the remains of living things
quartzan example of a mineral
crystala solid in which the atoms or molecules are arranged in a definite pattern that is repeated over and over again
compositionwhat a material is made of
lusterdescribes the way a mineral reflectsw light from its surfacee
silvera mineral with a metallic luster
hardnessthe ability of a mineral to resist being scratched
streakthe color of the powder scraped off a mineral when it is rubbed against a hard, rough surface
gypsuma mineral that has a colorless streak
densityamount of matter in a given space-mass per unit of volume
cleavage/fracturethe way a mineral breaks
volumethe amount of space an object takes up; measured in milliliters(ml), centimeters cubed (cm3)
masshow much matter an object has; stays the same even if the pull of gravity is different; measured in grams (g)
gemstonesminerals that can be cut and plished for jewelry, not all gems are minerals
pearla gem that is not a mineral
igneousrocks that were originally hot, fluid magma within the earth
rocka hard substance composed of one or more minerals
sedimentaryrocks formed from particles that have been carried along and deposited by wind and water, from dirt, sand, shells, bones, leaves, stems and other remains of living things-these particles becomes pressed or cemented together to form rocksa
metamorhpicrocks formed when chemical reactions, tremendous heat, and/or great pressure change existing rocks into new kinds or rocks, quite different properties from the original
rock cyclecontinuous changing of rocks from one kind to another over long periods of time
weatheringbreaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface
mechanical weatheringtemperature, frost action, organic activity, gravity, wind and water are examples of this
chemical weatheringchanges to a rock that change the substance entirely by the following: water and carbon dioxide, rust, sulfuric acid, plant acids, carbonation
erosionthe process by which weathered rock and soil particles are moved from one place to another, caused by gravity, wind, running water, glaciers, and waves
weightdetermined by the pull of gravity
matteranything that has mass and takes up space

OTTER CLUSTER ~ 6th Grade Science
Thomas A. Blake Middle School

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