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Chapter 14 - Gastrointestinal System

Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

biopsy (Bx)removal and microscopic study of tissue
incisional Bxremoval of a portion of a lesion for pathological examination
excisional Bxremoval of an entire llesion for pathological examination
endoscopyexamination with a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnosis or treatment; used in the gastrointestinal tract to detect abnormalities and perform procedures such as biopsy, excision of lesions, dilations of narrowed areas, removal of swallowed objects, etc.
esophagoscopyexamination of the esophagus with an esophagoscope
gastroscopyexamination of the stomach with a gastroscope
upper gastrointestinal endoscopyexamination of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a flexible endoscope; also known as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)endoscopic procedure including x-ray fluoroscopy to examine the ducts of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas (biliary ducts)
laparoscopyexamination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope--often including interventional surgical procedures
peritoneoscopyexamination of the peritoneal cavity with a peritoneoscope; often performed to examine the liver and obtain a biopsy specimen
colonoscopyexamination of the colon using a flexible colonoscope
sigmoidoscopyexamination of the sigmoid colon with a rigid or flexible sigmoidoscope
proctoscopyexamination of the rectum and anus with a proctoscope
magnetic resonance imagingnonionizing imaging technique for visualizing the abdominal cavity to identify disease or deformity in the gastrointestinal tract
radiographyx-ray imaging used to detect a condition or anomaly within the gastrointestinal tract
upper GI seriesx-ray of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum after the pateint has swallowed a contrast medium (barium is most commonly used)
barium swallowx-ray of the esophagus only; often used to locate swallowed objects
fluoroscopyx-ray using a fluorescent screen to visualize structures in motion (such as during a barium swallow)
lower GI series barium enemax-ray of the colon after administration of an enema containing a contrast medium
computed tomography (CT) of abdomencross-sectional x-ray of the abdomen used to identify a condition or anomaly within the gastrointestinal tract
cholangiogramx-ray of the bile ducts; often performed during surgery
cholecystogramx-ray of the gallbladder taken after oral ingestion of iodine
sonographyultrasound imaging
abdominal sonogramultrasound image of the abdomen to detect disease or deformity in organs and vascular structures
endoscopic sonographyan endoscopic procedure using a sonographic transducer within an endoscope to examine a body cavity and make sonographic images of structures and tissues
stool culture and sensitivityisolation of a stool specimen in a culture medium to identify disease-causing organisms; if present; the drugs to which they are sensitive are listed
stool occult blood studya chemical test of a stool specimen to detect the presence of blood; positive findings indicate bleeding in the GI tract


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